Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Silvia", "last_name"=>"Stringhini"}, {"first_name"=>"G. David", "last_name"=>"Batty"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascal", "last_name"=>"Bovet"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin J.", "last_name"=>"Shipley"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael G.", "last_name"=>"Marmot"}, {"first_name"=>"Meena", "last_name"=>"Kumari"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam G.", "last_name"=>"Tabak"}, {"first_name"=>"Mika", "last_name"=>"Kivimäki"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1549-1676", "pmid"=>"23843750", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"41cdf86f-eb55-3f1e-85c2-a340fff13ddb", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Socioeconomic adversity in early life has been hypothesized to \"program\" a vulnerable phenotype with exaggerated inflammatory responses, so increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence is explained by chronic inflammation. METHODS AND FINDINGS We use data from the British Whitehall II study, a prospective occupational cohort of adults established in 1985. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured repeatedly and type 2 diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over an 18-year follow-up (from 1991-1993 until 2007-2009). Our analytical sample consisted of 6,387 non-diabetic participants (1,818 women), of whom 731 (207 women) developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up. Cumulative exposure to low socioeconomic status from childhood to middle age was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.48-2.58 for low cumulative lifecourse socioeconomic score and HR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-1.91 for low-low socioeconomic trajectory). 25% of the excess risk associated with cumulative socioeconomic adversity across the lifecourse and 32% of the excess risk associated with low-low socioeconomic trajectory was attributable to chronically elevated inflammation (95% confidence intervals 16%-58%). CONCLUSIONS In the present study, chronic inflammation explained a substantial part of the association between lifecourse socioeconomic disadvantage and type 2 diabetes. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings in population-based samples, as the Whitehall II cohort is not representative of the general population, and to examine the extent to which social inequalities attributable to chronic inflammation are reversible.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-lifecourse-socioeconomic-status-chronic-inflammation-type-2-diabetes-risk-whitehall-ii-p-8", "reader_count"=>112, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>36, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>20, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>36}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>20}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>3, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Portugal"=>2, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84881235598"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84881235598?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84881235598&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84881235598&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84881235598", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84881235598", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84881235598", "dc:title"=>"Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study", "dc:creator"=>"Stringhini S.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Medicine", "prism:issn"=>"15491277", "prism:eIssn"=>"15491676", "prism:volume"=>"10", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-07-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"July 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479", "citedby-count"=>"98", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Institut Universitaire de Médecine Sociale et Préventive Lausanne", "affiliation-city"=>"Lausanne", "affiliation-country"=>"Switzerland"}], "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1001479", "source-id"=>"144840", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosmedicine%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pmed.1001479", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"300", "xml_views"=>"20", "html_views"=>"4657"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"188", "xml_views"=>"98", "html_views"=>"1941"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"342"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"359"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"292"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"212"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"189"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"256"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"200"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"212"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"183"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"152"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"154"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"217"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"276"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"154"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"150"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"115", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108872"], "description"=>"<p>Lower SES is associated with higher CRP (A) and IL-6 levels (B) and with a greater type 2 diabetes risk (C) after adjustment for sex, age, and ethnicity. All <i>p</i> for linear trend between lifecourse SES and inflammatory markers or type 2 diabetes were <0.001. Cumulative SES score includes father's occupational position, participants' education, and participants' occupational position at phase 3. Each SES measure was a 3-level variable with values ranging from 0 (high) to 2 (low). A score was calculated by summing each SES measure (range 0–6). The final cumulative SES score was categorized as high (score = 0–2), middle (score = 3–5), and low (score = 6). Lifecourse SES trajectory refers to father's occupational position and participants' occupational position at phase 3. p-y, person-years; T2D, type 2 diabetes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "lifecourse", "socioeconomic", "inflammatory", "markers"], "article_id"=>737645, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_lifecourse_socioeconomic_status_with_two_inflammatory_markers_and_type_2_diabetes_/737645", "title"=>"Association of lifecourse socioeconomic status with two inflammatory markers and type 2 diabetes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108885", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108886", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108887", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108888", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108889", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108890", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108891", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108892", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108893"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Socioeconomic adversity in early life has been hypothesized to “program” a vulnerable phenotype with exaggerated inflammatory responses, so increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence is explained by chronic inflammation.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We use data from the British Whitehall II study, a prospective occupational cohort of adults established in 1985. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured repeatedly and type 2 diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over an 18-year follow-up (from 1991–1993 until 2007–2009). Our analytical sample consisted of 6,387 non-diabetic participants (1,818 women), of whom 731 (207 women) developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up. Cumulative exposure to low socioeconomic status from childhood to middle age was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–2.58 for low cumulative lifecourse socioeconomic score and HR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.91 for low-low socioeconomic trajectory). 25% of the excess risk associated with cumulative socioeconomic adversity across the lifecourse and 32% of the excess risk associated with low-low socioeconomic trajectory was attributable to chronically elevated inflammation (95% confidence intervals 16%–58%).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>In the present study, chronic inflammation explained a substantial part of the association between lifecourse socioeconomic disadvantage and type 2 diabetes. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings in population-based samples, as the Whitehall II cohort is not representative of the general population, and to examine the extent to which social inequalities attributable to chronic inflammation are reversible.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "lifecourse", "socioeconomic", "whitehall", "ii", "prospective", "cohort"], "article_id"=>737658, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_Lifecourse_Socioeconomic_Status_with_Chronic_Inflammation_and_Type_2_Diabetes_Risk_The_Whitehall_II_Prospective_Cohort_Study_/737658", "title"=>"Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108879"], "description"=>"a<p>All risk factors are updated at phases 3, 5, and 7 and additionally adjusted for the risk factor at the previous phase.</p>b<p>Additional contribution of CRP and IL-6 to the model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, prevalent conditions, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and diet.</p><p>N/A, not applicable; ref., reference; Δ, attenuation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "ratios", "lifecourse", "socioeconomic", "trajectories", "incidence", "731"], "article_id"=>737652, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hazard_ratios_95_CI_for_the_association_of_lifecourse_socioeconomic_trajectories_with_type_2_diabetes_incidence_n_6_387_731_incident_diabetes_cases_/737652", "title"=>"Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the association of lifecourse socioeconomic trajectories with type 2 diabetes incidence (<i>n</i> = 6,387; 731 incident diabetes cases).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108876"], "description"=>"<p>Socioeconomic adversity over the lifetime is hypothesized to be associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Part of this association might be mediated by the elevated inflammatory states resulting from altered gene expression and/or unhealthy lifestyles, both related to socioeconomic adversity. Other factors (e.g., low birth weight) may also mediate part of the association between SES and type 2 diabetes (arrow A). Furthermore, SES is hypothesized to contribute to elevated inflammation because of comorbid conditions (arrow B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "conceptual", "inflammatory", "processes", "explaining", "inequalities"], "article_id"=>737649, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>103, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simplified_conceptual_framework_for_the_potential_role_of_inflammatory_processes_in_explaining_social_inequalities_in_type_2_diabetes_/737649", "title"=>"Simplified conceptual framework for the potential role of inflammatory processes in explaining social inequalities in type 2 diabetes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108874"], "description"=>"<p>The first bar shows explanatory factors for the associations of low cumulative SES score (ref. high cumulative SES score) (A) and adverse SES-trajectory (ref. high-high SES trajectory) (B) with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inflammatory markers, in combination, explain 26% (95% CI 16%–46%) of the first association (A) and 34% (95% CI 20%–62%) of the latter association (B). All associations are adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of T2D, and prevalent conditions. Cumulative SES score includes father's occupational position, participants' education, and participants' occupational position at phase 3. Each SES measure was a 3-level variable with values ranging from 0 (high) to 2 (low). A score was calculated by summing each SES measure (range 0–6). The final cumulative SES score was categorized as high (score = 0–2), middle (score = 3–5), and low (score = 6). Lifecourse SES trajectory refers to father's occupational position and participants' occupational position at phase 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "il-6", "lifecourse", "socioeconomic"], "article_id"=>737647, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contribution_of_smoking_physical_activity_diet_BMI_CRP_and_IL_6_to_the_association_between_lifecourse_socioeconomic_status_and_type_2_diabetes_incidence_/737647", "title"=>"Contribution of smoking, physical activity, diet, BMI, CRP, and IL-6 to the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108882"], "description"=>"a<p>Cumulative SES score includes father's occupational position, participants' education, and participants' occupational position at phase 3. Each SES measure was a 3-level variable with values ranging from 0 (high) to 2 (low). A score was calculated by summing each SES measure (range 0–6). The final cumulative SES score was categorized as high (score = 0–2), middle (score = 3–5), and low (score = 6).</p>b<p>Lifecourse SES trajectory refers to father's occupational position and participants' occupational position at phase 3.</p>c<p>Model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and prevalent conditions.</p>d<p>Model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, prevalent conditions, smoking, physical activity, diet.</p><p>β, Beta coefficient; ref., reference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "ratios", "indicators", "socioeconomic", "lifecourse", "baseline", "ii"], "article_id"=>737655, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Odds_ratios_95_CI_for_the_association_of_indicators_of_socioeconomic_status_across_the_lifecourse_with_type_2_diabetes_risk_factors_at_baseline_Whitehall_II_phase_3_n_6_387_/737655", "title"=>"Odds ratios (95% CI) for the association of indicators of socioeconomic status across the lifecourse with type 2 diabetes risk factors at baseline (Whitehall II phase 3), <i>n</i> = 6,387.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108883"], "description"=>"a<p>Model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and prevalent conditions.</p>b<p>Model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, prevalent conditions, and mutually adjusted for all risk factors.</p><p>ref., reference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "ratios", "inflammatory", "markers", "incidence", "731"], "article_id"=>737656, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hazard_ratios_95_CI_for_the_association_of_inflammatory_markers_and_other_risk_factors_with_type_2_diabetes_incidence_n_6_387_731_incident_diabetes_cases_/737656", "title"=>"Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the association of inflammatory markers and other risk factors with type 2 diabetes incidence (<i>n</i> = 6,387; 731 incident diabetes cases).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108881"], "description"=>"a<p><i>p</i> for linear trend across socioeconomic categories.</p>b<p>Prevalent conditions considered are coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and hypertension.</p>c<p>Age, sex, and ethnicity adjusted diabetes incidence rate per 1,000 person-year over a 14.3-y mean follow-up.</p><p>CI, 95% CI.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "baseline", "ii", "incidence", "follow-up", "indicators", "socioeconomic", "731"], "article_id"=>737654, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_participant_characteristics_at_baseline_Whitehall_II_phase_3_and_type_2_diabetes_incidence_at_a_mean_14_3_y_follow_up_from_phase_3_to_phase_9_according_to_indicators_of_socioeconomic_status_in_early_and_adult_life_n_6_387_731_incident_diabetes_case/737654", "title"=>"Study participant characteristics at baseline (Whitehall II phase 3) and type 2 diabetes incidence at a mean 14.3-y follow-up (from phase 3 to phase 9) according to indicators of socioeconomic status in early and adult life (<i>n</i> = 6,387; 731 incident diabetes cases).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108878"], "description"=>"a<p>The cumulative SES score is entered as a continuous 3-level variable into the models. HR is for the lowest versus highest score.</p>b<p>All risk factors are updated at phases 3, 5, and7 and additionally adjusted for the risk factor at the previous phase.</p>c<p>Additional contribution of CRP and IL-6 to the model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, prevalent conditions, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and diet.</p><p>ref., reference; Δ, attenuation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "ratios", "cumulative", "socioeconomic", "incidence", "731"], "article_id"=>737651, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hazard_ratios_95_CI_for_the_association_of_cumulative_socioeconomic_score_with_type_2_diabetes_incidence_n_6_387_731_incident_diabetes_cases_/737651", "title"=>"Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the association of cumulative socioeconomic score with type 2 diabetes incidence (<i>n</i> = 6,387; 731 incident diabetes cases).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1108877"], "description"=>"a<p>Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and prevalent conditions.</p>b<p>All risk factors are updated at phases 3, 5, and 7 and additionally adjusted for the risk factor at the previous phase.</p>c<p>Additional contribution of CRP and IL-6 to the model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, prevalent conditions, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and diet.</p><p>Δ, attenuation; N/A, not applicable; ref., reference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical immunology", "immunity", "inflammation", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "ratios", "indicators", "socioeconomic", "incidence", "731"], "article_id"=>737650, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "G. David Batty", "Pascal Bovet", "Martin J. Shipley", "Michael G. Marmot", "Meena Kumari", "Adam G. Tabák", "Mika Kivimäki"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001479.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hazard_ratios_95_CI_for_the_association_of_indicators_of_socioeconomic_status_in_early_and_adult_life_with_type_2_diabetes_incidence_n_6_387_731_incident_diabetes_cases_/737650", "title"=>"Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the association of indicators of socioeconomic status in early and adult life with type 2 diabetes incidence (<i>n</i> = 6,387; 731 incident diabetes cases).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-02 03:34:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"36", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[262, 463, 587, 693, 790, 882, 965, 1051, 1135, 1218, 1300, 1376, 1438]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Metabolic disorders", "average_usage"=>[254, 466, 587, 690, 790, 885, 983, 1063, 1139, 1216, 1297, 1373, 1442]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[267, 466, 592, 709, 806, 901, 989, 1075, 1162, 1254, 1342, 1424, 1486]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts