Physician Emigration from Sub-Saharan Africa to the United States: Analysis of the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Physician Emigration from Sub-Saharan Africa to the United States: Analysis of the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam", "last_name"=>"Tankwanchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55885993900"}, {"first_name"=>"Çaǧlar", "last_name"=>"Özden", "scopus_author_id"=>"8667742100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sten H.", "last_name"=>"Vermund", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005659646"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24068894", "issn"=>"15491676", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513", "pui"=>"369899156", "isbn"=>"15491676", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884646294", "sgr"=>"84884646294"}, "id"=>"99763858-5846-3f68-948e-cdd33d7f92b2", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The large-scale emigration of physicians from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to high-income nations is a serious development concern. Our objective was to determine current emigration trends of SSA physicians found in the physician workforce of the United States.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed physician data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Workforce Statistics along with graduation and residency data from the 2011 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile (AMA-PM) on physicians trained or born in SSA countries who currently practice in the US. We estimated emigration proportions, year of US entry, years of practice before emigration, and length of time in the US. According to the 2011 AMA-PM, 10,819 physicians were born or trained in 28 SSA countries. Sixty-eight percent (n = 7,370) were SSA-trained, 20% (n = 2,126) were US-trained, and 12% (n = 1,323) were trained outside both SSA and the US. We estimated active physicians (age ≤ 70 years) to represent 96% (n = 10,377) of the total. Migration trends among SSA-trained physicians increased from 2002 to 2011 for all but one principal source country; the exception was South Africa whose physician migration to the US decreased by 8% (-156). The increase in last-decade migration was >50% in Nigeria (+1,113) and Ghana (+243), >100% in Ethiopia (+274), and >200% (+244) in Sudan. Liberia was the most affected by migration to the US with 77% (n = 175) of its estimated physicians in the 2011 AMA-PM. On average, SSA-trained physicians have been in the US for 18 years. They practiced for 6.5 years before US entry, and nearly half emigrated during the implementation years (1984-1999) of the structural adjustment programs.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Physician emigration from SSA to the US is increasing for most SSA source countries. Unless far-reaching policies are implemented by the US and SSA countries, the current emigration trends will persist, and the US will remain a leading destination for SSA physicians emigrating from the continent of greatest need. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/physician-emigration-subsaharan-africa-united-states-analysis-2011-ama-physician-masterfile", "reader_count"=>84, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>39, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>14, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>39}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>14}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>14}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "South Africa"=>1, "Ethiopia"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84884646294"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84884646294?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84884646294&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84884646294&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84884646294", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84884646294", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84884646294", "dc:title"=>"Physician Emigration from Sub-Saharan Africa to the United States: Analysis of the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile", "dc:creator"=>"Tankwanchi A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Medicine", "prism:issn"=>"15491277", "prism:eIssn"=>"15491676", "prism:volume"=>"10", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"9", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-01-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"September 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513", "citedby-count"=>"47", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Vanderbilt University", "affiliation-city"=>"Nashville", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24068894", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1001513", "source-id"=>"144840", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosmedicine%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pmed.1001513", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Reddit | Further Information

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"185", "xml_views"=>"24", "html_views"=>"3739"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"123", "xml_views"=>"17", "html_views"=>"4121"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"614"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"659"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"476"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"486"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"606"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"572"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"536"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"620"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"288"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"69", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"3086"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"552"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"489"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"379"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"426"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1099"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"250"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"338"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"174"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"219"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"285"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"320"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"225"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"218"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"192"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"243"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"178"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"277"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"358"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"182"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"221"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"194"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"257"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"225"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"213"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"111"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"21"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206696"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>. As reflected by the exponential equation and the determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of the smoothed line displayed on the chart, the distribution of the data approaches an exponential curve, and reflects the rapid emigration growth of sub-Saharan African trained medical graduates. The increase in emigration is particularly significant in cohort 3, which mainly coincides with the implementation period of the SAPs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sub-saharan", "african-trained", "graduates"], "article_id"=>801184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_over_time_of_migration_among_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_medical_graduates_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_/801184", "title"=>"Growth over time of migration among Sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates appearing in the US physician workforce.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206709"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>Each of these 17 sub-Saharan African countries had ≤15 IMGs trained outside sub-Saharan Africa in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african-born", "graduates", "graduated", "schools", "sub-saharan"], "article_id"=>801197, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sub_Saharan_African_born_international_medical_graduates_who_graduated_from_schools_outside_Sub_Saharan_Africa_/801197", "title"=>"Sub-Saharan African-born international medical graduates who graduated from schools outside Sub-Saharan Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206699"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "sub-saharan", "african-trained", "graduates", "2011", "ama"], "article_id"=>801187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Emigration_trends_among_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_medical_graduates_with_complete_birth_country_data_in_the_2011_AMA_Physician_Masterfile_/801187", "title"=>"Emigration trends among Sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates with complete birth country data in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206712"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>These 28 physicians are sub-Saharan African-born IMGs trained in North Africa. They were included in our data analysis while the other 6,557 North African-trained and North African-born IMGs were excluded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physicians", "workforce"], "article_id"=>801200, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_African_origin_physicians_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_in_2011_/801200", "title"=>"African-origin physicians appearing in the US physician workforce in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206692"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sub-saharan", "african", "migrant", "physicians"], "article_id"=>801180, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subgroups_of_Sub_Saharan_African_migrant_physicians_identified_in_the_US_physician_workforce_/801180", "title"=>"Subgroups of Sub-Saharan African migrant physicians identified in the US physician workforce.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206718"], "description"=>"<p>Data sources: World Health Organization <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-World4\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>; American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>SSA-IMGs, sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates; SSA-USMGs, US-trained medical graduates born in sub-Saharan Africa; Other IMGs, sub-Saharan African-born internationals medical graduates trained outside sub-Saharan Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emigration", "sub-saharan", "african", "physicians", "workforce"], "article_id"=>801206, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aggregate_stock_and_overall_emigration_fraction_of_Sub_Saharan_African_physicians_in_the_US_physician_workforce_in_2011_/801206", "title"=>"Aggregate stock and overall emigration fraction of Sub-Saharan African physicians in the US physician workforce in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206715"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>SSA-IMGs, sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates; SSA-USMGs, US-trained medical graduates born in sub-Saharan Africa; Other IMGs, sub-Saharan African-born internationals medical graduates trained outside sub-Saharan Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["residency", "institutions", "trained", "highest", "sub-saharan", "african", "physicians", "workforce"], "article_id"=>801203, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_US_residency_institutions_that_trained_the_highest_number_of_Sub_Saharan_African_physicians_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_in_2011_/801203", "title"=>"US residency institutions that trained the highest number of Sub-Saharan African physicians appearing in the US physician workforce in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206708"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "sub-saharan", "african-born", "graduates", "educated", "africa", "completing", "residency", "united", "states", "2000"], "article_id"=>801196, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recent_demographic_trends_among_Sub_Saharan_African_born_international_medical_graduates_educated_outside_Sub_Saharan_Africa_and_completing_residency_in_the_United_States_in_2000_or_later_/801196", "title"=>"Recent demographic trends among Sub-Saharan African-born international medical graduates educated outside Sub-Saharan Africa and completing residency in the United States in 2000 or later.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206705"], "description"=>"<p>*Note: No information was provided as to which campus of the University of Illinois these sub-Saharan African-born medical graduates attended. Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schools", "highest", "sub-saharan", "african-born", "graduates", "practicing", "united"], "article_id"=>801193, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_American_medical_schools_with_the_highest_number_of_Sub_Saharan_African_born_graduates_practicing_in_the_United_States_/801193", "title"=>"American medical schools with the highest number of Sub-Saharan African-born graduates practicing in the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206698"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Based on n = 6,421 complete graduation and residency records. Estimated mean year of time between graduation and entry in the United States: 6.4 y (SD = 4.6). Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cohort", "sub-saharan", "african-trained", "graduates", "united"], "article_id"=>801186, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_of_service_provided_to_the_home_country_by_each_graduation_cohort_of_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_medical_graduates_before_migration_to_the_United_States_/801186", "title"=>"Length of service provided to the home country by each graduation cohort of Sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates before migration to the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206711"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>DRC is the Democratic Republic of Congo. Other includes ten countries with fewer than five SSA-IMGs each in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african-trained", "graduates", "workforce"], "article_id"=>801199, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_international_medical_graduates_SSA_IMGs_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_in_2011_/801199", "title"=>"Sub-Saharan African-trained international medical graduates (SSA-IMGs) appearing in the US physician workforce in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206701"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sub-saharan", "african-trained", "graduates", "2011", "ama"], "article_id"=>801189, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trends_in_primary_specialty_among_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_medical_graduates_with_complete_birth_country_data_in_the_2011_AMA_Physician_Masterfile_/801189", "title"=>"Trends in primary specialty among Sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates with complete birth country data in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206714"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>SSA-IMGs, sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates; SSA-USMGs, US-trained medical graduates born in sub-Saharan Africa; Other IMGs, sub-Saharan African-born internationals medical graduates trained outside sub-Saharan Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["choices", "sub-saharan", "african", "migrant", "physicians", "workforce"], "article_id"=>801202, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primary_specialty_choices_among_Sub_Saharan_African_migrant_physicians_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_in_2011_/801202", "title"=>"Primary specialty choices among Sub-Saharan African migrant physicians appearing in the US physician workforce in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206694"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african-based", "institutions", "largest", "numbers", "graduates"], "article_id"=>801182, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sub_Saharan_African_based_institutions_with_the_largest_numbers_of_medical_graduates_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_/801182", "title"=>"Sub-Saharan African-based institutions with the largest numbers of medical graduates appearing in the US physician workforce.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206717"], "description"=>"<p>Data sources: World Health Organization <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-World4\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>; 2002 AMA Physician Masterfile as per Hagopian et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-Hagopian1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>; American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>2002 data were reported by Hagopian et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-Hagopian1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a> except for the numbers of IMGs trained in Cameroon, Tanzania, and Sudan. Their numbers are included in brackets because they are not part of the total counts reported in the last row of the table. These migrants were identified among SSA-IMGs in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile who completed residency by 2002. But the number of physicians available in Cameroon, Sudan, and Tanzania in 2002 came from the Hagopian et al. paper. In their dataset, “other” includes 12 countries with “at least one graduate in the US.” In our 2011 dataset, except otherwise specified, “other” refers to the 16 sub-Saharan African countries with fewer than 15 SSA-IMGs each in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile. The numbers of physicians in source countries for the year 2011 are from the Global Health Workforce Statistics of the World Health Organization <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-World4\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>. “Active” emigration rate is the emigration rate among potentially active physicians. We defined all migrant physicians age ≤70 as potentially active.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sub-saharan", "african-trained", "graduates", "workforce", "2002"], "article_id"=>801205, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_the_number_of_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_international_medical_graduates_SSA_IMGs_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_between_2002_and_2011_/801205", "title"=>"Change in the number of Sub-Saharan African-trained international medical graduates (SSA-IMGs) appearing in the US physician workforce between 2002 and 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206710"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>Each of these 24 sub-Saharan African countries had <20 USMGs, except Somalia which had 32 USMGs but had <15 SSA-IMGs in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile, and as such was not included among the top 12 sub-Saharan African source countries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african-born", "physicians", "graduated", "us-based", "schools"], "article_id"=>801198, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sub_Saharan_African_born_physicians_who_graduated_from_US_based_medical_schools_SSA_USMGs_/801198", "title"=>"Sub-Saharan African-born physicians who graduated from US-based medical schools (SSA-USMGs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206707"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["residency", "trends", "sub-saharan", "african-born", "graduates", "educated"], "article_id"=>801195, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graduation_and_residency_trends_among_Sub_Saharan_African_born_international_medical_graduates_educated_outside_Sub_Saharan_Africa_/801195", "title"=>"Graduation and residency trends among Sub-Saharan African-born international medical graduates educated outside Sub-Saharan Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206703"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>. As reflected by the exponential equation and the determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of the smoothed line displayed on the chart, the distribution of the data approaches an exponential curve, reflecting a rapid numerical increase of sub-Saharan African natives graduating from medical school in the US.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "sub-saharan", "african-born", "graduates", "schools", "united"], "article_id"=>801191, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graduation_trends_among_Sub_Saharan_African_born_graduates_of_medical_schools_located_in_the_United_States_/801191", "title"=>"Graduation trends among Sub-Saharan African-born graduates of medical schools located in the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206716"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>a<p>Sub-Saharan African countries with <15 SSA-IMGs each in the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile.</p><p>Note: Residency completion data were available for only 6,421 SSA-IMGs age ≤70. Given that the American Medical Association does not collect data on residency admission date, year of US entry was estimated by subtracting 5 y from residency completion year. Among SSA-IMGs still in residency at the time (<i>n</i> = 439), the 5-y lag was adjusted proportionally to the anticipated year of residency completion. Estimates were readjusted upward for those SSA-IMGs whose estimated year of entry in the US preceded their graduation year. For example, year of US entry for a Nigerian-trained physician who graduated from medical school in 2008 and was expected to complete residency in 2012, was readjusted from 2007 (i.e., 2012 minus 5 y) to 2008 (year of graduation). Estimates were readjusted downward for those SSA-IMGs whose estimated US entry year was above 2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["residency", "years", "sub-saharan", "african-trained", "graduates", "workforce"], "article_id"=>801204, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Birth_graduation_residency_completion_and_estimated_US_entry_years_among_Sub_Saharan_African_trained_medical_graduates_SSA_IMGs_appearing_in_the_US_physician_workforce_in_2011_/801204", "title"=>"Birth, graduation, residency completion, and estimated US entry years among Sub-Saharan African-trained medical graduates (SSA-IMGs) appearing in the US physician workforce in 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206713"], "description"=>"<p>Data sources: World Health Organization <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-World4\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>; World Health Organization <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-World5\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>; Mullan et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-Mullan1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>; Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-Foundation1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>; University of Copenhagen and World Health Organization <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-University1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>; Redi-Med Data <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-RediMed1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>; United States Census Bureau <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-United1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>a<p>Circa 1970, 1969–1976; circa 2010, 2003–2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physician-to-population", "ratios", "schools", "african", "non-african", "ranked"], "article_id"=>801201, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_physician_to_population_ratios_density_and_medical_schools_in_selected_African_and_non_African_countries_ranked_by_change_in_physician_density_/801201", "title"=>"Changes in physician-to-population ratios (density) and medical schools in selected African and non-African countries, ranked by change in physician density.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206693"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african", "migrant", "physicians", "completed", "2000"], "article_id"=>801181, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sub_Saharan_African_migrant_physicians_who_completed_medical_school_in_2000_or_later_and_are_present_in_the_US_physician_workforce_/801181", "title"=>"Sub-Saharan African migrant physicians who completed medical school in 2000 or later and are present in the US physician workforce.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206706"], "description"=>"<p>Data source: American Medical Association <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513#pmed.1001513-American3\" target=\"_blank\">[115]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schools", "sub-saharan", "africa", "highest", "african-born", "graduates", "practicing", "united"], "article_id"=>801194, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Foreign_medical_schools_located_outside_Sub_Saharan_Africa_with_the_highest_number_of_Sub_Saharan_African_born_medical_graduates_practicing_in_the_United_States_/801194", "title"=>"Foreign medical schools located outside Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest number of Sub-Saharan African-born medical graduates practicing in the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206719", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206720", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206721", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206722", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206723", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206724", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206725", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206726", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206727", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206728", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206729", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206730", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206731", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206732", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206733", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206734", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1206735"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The large-scale emigration of physicians from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to high-income nations is a serious development concern. Our objective was to determine current emigration trends of SSA physicians found in the physician workforce of the United States.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We analyzed physician data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Workforce Statistics along with graduation and residency data from the 2011 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile (AMA-PM) on physicians trained or born in SSA countries who currently practice in the US. We estimated emigration proportions, year of US entry, years of practice before emigration, and length of time in the US. According to the 2011 AMA-PM, 10,819 physicians were born or trained in 28 SSA countries. Sixty-eight percent (<i>n</i> = 7,370) were SSA-trained, 20% (<i>n</i> = 2,126) were US-trained, and 12% (<i>n</i> = 1,323) were trained outside both SSA and the US. We estimated active physicians (age ≤70 years) to represent 96% (<i>n</i> = 10,377) of the total. Migration trends among SSA-trained physicians increased from 2002 to 2011 for all but one principal source country; the exception was South Africa whose physician migration to the US decreased by 8% (−156). The increase in last-decade migration was >50% in Nigeria (+1,113) and Ghana (+243), >100% in Ethiopia (+274), and >200% (+244) in Sudan. Liberia was the most affected by migration to the US with 77% (<i>n</i> = 175) of its estimated physicians in the 2011 AMA-PM. On average, SSA-trained physicians have been in the US for 18 years. They practiced for 6.5 years before US entry, and nearly half emigrated during the implementation years (1984–1999) of the structural adjustment programs.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Physician emigration from SSA to the US is increasing for most SSA source countries. Unless far-reaching policies are implemented by the US and SSA countries, the current emigration trends will persist, and the US will remain a leading destination for SSA physicians emigrating from the continent of greatest need.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emigration", "sub-saharan", "africa", "united", "2011", "ama"], "article_id"=>801207, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi", "Çağlar Özden", "Sten H. Vermund"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001513.s017"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physician_Emigration_from_Sub_Saharan_Africa_to_the_United_States_Analysis_of_the_2011_AMA_Physician_Masterfile_/801207", "title"=>"Physician Emigration from Sub-Saharan Africa to the United States: Analysis of the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-17 01:30:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"34", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"86", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"36", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"65", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Medical humanities", "average_usage"=>[417, 593, 721, 812, 1015, 1110, 1199, 1273, 1399, 1514, 1656, 1750, 1809]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[291, 491, 610, 723, 817, 906, 991, 1071, 1153, 1238, 1324, 1411, 1478]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Economics", "average_usage"=>[283, 468, 592, 699, 799, 907, 980, 1079, 1187, 1282, 1376, 1479, 1547]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts