Impact of Intermittent Screening and Treatment for Malaria among School Children in Kenya: A Cluster Randomised Trial
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{"title"=>"Impact of Intermittent Screening and Treatment for Malaria among School Children in Kenya: A Cluster Randomised Trial", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katherine E.", "last_name"=>"Halliday", "scopus_author_id"=>"36573064600"}, {"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Okello", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506196442"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth L.", "last_name"=>"Turner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202447916"}, {"first_name"=>"Kiambo", "last_name"=>"Njagi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36523665200"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos", "last_name"=>"Mcharo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506603459"}, {"first_name"=>"Juddy", "last_name"=>"Kengo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55734743900"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Allen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35202921100"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret M.", "last_name"=>"Dubeck", "scopus_author_id"=>"36573053500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew C H", "last_name"=>"Jukes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003561571"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon J.", "last_name"=>"Brooker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005926568"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491277", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893785971", "sgr"=>"84893785971", "pui"=>"372349017", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24492859", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594"}, "id"=>"c4e63c83-81fc-3652-b44b-3e3a303e5e1f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND:Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the benefits of alternative school-based malaria interventions or how the impacts of interventions vary according to intensity of malaria transmission. We investigated the effect of intermittent screening and treatment (IST) for malaria on the health and education of school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS:A cluster randomised trial was implemented with 5,233 children in 101 government primary schools on the south coast of Kenya in 2010-2012. The intervention was delivered to children randomly selected from classes 1 and 5 who were followed up for 24 months. Once a school term, children were screened by public health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and children (with or without malaria symptoms) found to be RDT-positive were treated with a six dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Given the nature of the intervention, the trial was not blinded. The primary outcomes were anaemia and sustained attention. Secondary outcomes were malaria parasitaemia and educational achievement. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. During the intervention period, an average of 88.3% children in intervention schools were screened at each round, of whom 17.5% were RDT-positive. 80.3% of children in the control and 80.2% in the intervention group were followed-up at 24 months. No impact of the malaria IST intervention was observed for prevalence of anaemia at either 12 or 24 months (adjusted risk ratio [Adj.RR]: 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.13, p = 0.621 and Adj.RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.90-1.11, p = 0.953) respectively, or on prevalence of P. falciparum infection or scores of classroom attention. No effect of IST was observed on educational achievement in the older class, but an apparent negative effect was seen on spelling scores in the younger class at 9 and 24 months and on arithmetic scores at 24 months.\\n\\nCONCLUSION:In this setting in Kenya, IST as implemented in this study is not effective in improving the health or education of school children. Possible reasons for the absence of an impact are the marked geographical heterogeneity in transmission, the rapid rate of reinfection following AL treatment, the variable reliability of RDTs, and the relative contribution of malaria to the aetiology of anaemia in this setting.\\n\\nTRIAL REGISTRATION:www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00878007 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-intermittent-screening-treatment-malaria-among-school-children-kenya-cluster-randomised-trial", "reader_count"=>121, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Computer Science"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>41, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>15, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>41}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Bangladesh"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Tanzania"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Kenya"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>18}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363693"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a> presented (i) for all children with outcome data (unadjusted) and (ii) for those with baseline measurements of each outcome and accounting for age, sex, and stratification effects (adjusted) as the primary pre-specified analysis. <i>N</i>, number of children eligible for follow-up (not withdrawn or deceased). Adjusted: for baseline age, sex, school mean exam score and literacy group (to account for stratification) and baseline measure of the outcome, where available; unadjusted: all children with outcome measures, not adjusted for any baseline or study design characteristics.</p>a<p>Mean difference (intervention-control) for scores on spelling and arithmetic are obtained from GEE analysis accounting for school-level clustering.</p>b<p>Mean score and SD at follow-up.</p>c<p>The same class 1 spelling task was given at baseline, 9- and 24-months follow-ups, with different words used for the 24-month follow-up.</p>d<p>Same addition task conducted at 9-months follow-up and at baseline, hence baseline adjustment is for the same task.</p>e<p>The same class 5 spelling task was given at baseline, 9- and 24-months follow-ups, with different words used for the 24-month follow-up.</p>f<p>Same arithmetic task conducted at baseline, 9- and 24-months follow-ups, with different sums used for the 24-month follow-up.</p>g<p>Addition task conducted at baseline and arithmetic task containing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division conducted at 24-months follow-up, hence baseline adjustment for different task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health", "ist", "9-", "24-months", "follow-up", "outcomes", "younger", "older"], "article_id"=>915904, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_the_IST_intervention_at_9_and_24_months_follow_up_on_educational_achievement_spelling_and_arithmetic_outcomes_for_younger_class_1_and_older_class_5_children_/915904", "title"=>"Effect of the IST intervention at 9- and 24-months follow-up on educational achievement (spelling and arithmetic) outcomes for younger (class 1) and older (class 5) children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363691"], "description"=>"<p>The flow of children and clusters in the 50 control 51 IST intervention groups at all assessment points throughout the two-year study period. FU1 indicates follow-up 1 and FU2 indicates follow-up 2. Cluster size is presented as mean (SD) [min, max].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health"], "article_id"=>915902, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trial_profile_/915902", "title"=>"Trial profile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363688"], "description"=>"<p>Schools assigned to the IST intervention are shown in blue and schools assigned to the control group are shown in yellow. Insert shows the location of the study site in Kenya.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health"], "article_id"=>915899, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_study_area_and_schools_/915899", "title"=>"Map of the study area and schools.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363696"], "description"=>"a<p>Percent of non-missing children in each study group presented for categorised data. For continuous data mean (SD) [min,max] is presented.</p>b<p>All characteristics have less than 2% missing data with the exception of following indicators (reported as control/intervention): stunted and thin both (138/248 [5.5/9.2%] missing), underweight (1,538/1,744 [61.0/64.4%] missing), net use last night (661/840 [26.2/31.0%] missing).</p>c<p>In Class 1, mean (SD) for age is: 7.8 (1.7) and in Class 5, mean (SD) for age is:12.5 (1.6).</p>d<p>Percentages of treated nets and children sleeping under a net last night are presented only for those children who were reported as usually sleeping under a net.</p>e<p>Study endpoints have less than 5% missing data at baseline with the exception of the following (reported as control/intervention): Hb (147/255 [5.8/9.4%] missing), <i>P. falciparum</i> infection (274 [10.1%] missing in intervention group), class 5 attention (79/72 [6.1/5.2%] missing).</p>f<p>Coefficient of variation (k) estimated for binary outcomes using available baseline (i.e., only using data from IST schools for <i>P. falciparum</i>) and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimated for continuous outcomes using baseline measures.</p>g<p>Not measured at baseline in the control group.</p>h<p>Presented as mean (SD) [min,max].</p>i<p>In class 1 sustained attention was measured by the “pencil tap test” and in class 5 sustained attention was measured by the “two digit code transmission test.”</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health", "children", "50", "51", "ist"], "article_id"=>915907, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_of_5_233_study_children_in_the_50_control_and_51_IST_intervention_schools_/915907", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics of 5,233 study children in the 50 control and 51 IST intervention schools.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363695"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a> presented (i) for all children with outcome data (unadjusted) and (ii) for those with baseline measurements of each outcome and accounting for age, sex, and stratification effects (adjusted) as the primary pre-specified analysis. <i>N</i>, number of children eligible for follow-up (not withdrawn or deceased). Adjusted: for baseline age, sex, school mean exam score and literacy group (to account for stratification), and baseline measure of the outcome, where available; unadjusted: all children with outcome measures, not adjusted for any baseline or study design characteristics.</p>a<p>Risk ratios (intervention/control) presented for binary outcomes (anaemia and <i>P. falciparum</i> prevalence) and are obtained from GEE analysis accounting for school-level clustering.</p>b<p>Number and percentage with outcome.</p>c<p>Age-sex specific anaemia was defined using age and sex corrected WHO thresholds of Hb: <110 g/l in children under 5 years; <115 g/l in children 5 to 11 years; <120 g/l in females 12 years and over and males 12 to 14.99 years old; and <130 g/l in males ≥15 years. All female adolescents are assumed to not be pregnant.</p>d<p>Not including baseline <i>P. falciparum</i> infection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health", "ist", "12-", "24-months", "follow-up", "outcomes", "anaemia", "prevalence"], "article_id"=>915906, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_the_IST_intervention_at_12_and_24_months_follow_up_on_health_outcomes_anaemia_and_P_falciparum_prevalence_for_study_children_/915906", "title"=>"Effect of the IST intervention at 12- and 24-months follow-up on health outcomes anaemia and <i>P. falciparum</i> prevalence for study children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363689"], "description"=>"<p>This figure depicts the randomisation procedures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health"], "article_id"=>915900, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_design_diagram_/915900", "title"=>"Study design diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363698", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363699", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363700", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363701", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363702", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363703", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363704", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363705", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363706", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363707", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363708", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363709", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363710", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363711", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363712", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363713"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the benefits of alternative school-based malaria interventions or how the impacts of interventions vary according to intensity of malaria transmission. We investigated the effect of intermittent screening and treatment (IST) for malaria on the health and education of school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>A cluster randomised trial was implemented with 5,233 children in 101 government primary schools on the south coast of Kenya in 2010–2012. The intervention was delivered to children randomly selected from classes 1 and 5 who were followed up for 24 months. Once a school term, children were screened by public health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and children (with or without malaria symptoms) found to be RDT-positive were treated with a six dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Given the nature of the intervention, the trial was not blinded. The primary outcomes were anaemia and sustained attention. Secondary outcomes were malaria parasitaemia and educational achievement. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis.</p><p>During the intervention period, an average of 88.3% children in intervention schools were screened at each round, of whom 17.5% were RDT-positive. 80.3% of children in the control and 80.2% in the intervention group were followed-up at 24 months. No impact of the malaria IST intervention was observed for prevalence of anaemia at either 12 or 24 months (adjusted risk ratio [Adj.RR]: 1.03, 95% CI 0.93–1.13, <i>p</i> = 0.621 and Adj.RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.90–1.11, <i>p</i> = 0.953) respectively, or on prevalence of <i>P. falciparum</i> infection or scores of classroom attention. No effect of IST was observed on educational achievement in the older class, but an apparent negative effect was seen on spelling scores in the younger class at 9 and 24 months and on arithmetic scores at 24 months.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>In this setting in Kenya, IST as implemented in this study is not effective in improving the health or education of school children. Possible reasons for the absence of an impact are the marked geographical heterogeneity in transmission, the rapid rate of reinfection following AL treatment, the variable reliability of RDTs, and the relative contribution of malaria to the aetiology of anaemia in this setting.</p><p>Trial registration</p><p>www.ClinicalTrials.gov <a href=\"http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00878007\" target=\"_blank\">NCT00878007</a></p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health", "intermittent", "children", "randomised"], "article_id"=>915909, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.s016"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>75, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_Intermittent_Screening_and_Treatment_for_Malaria_among_School_Children_in_Kenya_A_Cluster_Randomised_Trial_/915909", "title"=>"Impact of Intermittent Screening and Treatment for Malaria among School Children in Kenya: A Cluster Randomised Trial", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363694"], "description"=>"<p>Sensitivity and specificity of RDTs compared to expert microscopy is displayed.</p>a<p>Study children are shown as a percentage of the 2,710 initially eligible for the intervention and loss at each stage represents withdrawals and/or deaths. Child transfer events are not included.</p>b<p>Children treated who were directly observed taking doses 1, 3, and 5 in school at the correct time and who reported taking the evening doses.</p>c<p>Microscopy results not available for visit 5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health", "children", "ist"], "article_id"=>915905, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_information_for_2_710_study_children_in_the_IST_intervention_group_by_screening_round_/915905", "title"=>"Summary information for 2,710 study children in the IST intervention group by screening round.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363692"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a> presented (i) for all children with outcome data (unadjusted) and (ii) for those with baseline measurements of each outcome and accounting for age, sex, and stratification effects (adjusted) as the primary pre-specified analysis. <i>N</i>, number of children eligible for follow-up (not withdrawn or deceased). Adjusted: for baseline age, sex, school mean exam score and literacy group (to account for stratification), and baseline measure of the outcome, where available; unadjusted: all children with outcome measures, not adjusted for any baseline or study design characteristics.</p>a<p>Mean difference (intervention-control) are obtained from GEE analysis accounting for school-level clustering.</p>b<p>Mean score and SD at follow-up.</p>c<p>Pencil tap test was conducted at baseline and single digit code transmission task was conducted at 9- and 24-months follow-ups.</p>d<p>Double digit code transmission was conducted at baseline and both follow-ups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Longitudinal studies", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "malaria", "Public health", "Child health", "ist", "9-", "24-months", "follow-up", "sustained", "outcomes", "younger", "older"], "article_id"=>915903, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Katherine E. Halliday", "George Okello", "Elizabeth L. Turner", "Kiambo Njagi", "Carlos Mcharo", "Juddy Kengo", "Elizabeth Allen", "Margaret M. Dubeck", "Matthew C. H. Jukes", "Simon J. Brooker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001594.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_the_IST_intervention_at_9_and_24_months_follow_up_on_sustained_attention_outcomes_for_younger_class_1_and_older_class_5_children_/915903", "title"=>"Effect of the IST intervention at 9- and 24-months follow-up on sustained attention outcomes for younger (class 1) and older (class 5) children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:45:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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