Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Publication Date
January 28, 2014
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Jasper V. Been, Marlies J. Lugtenberg, Eline Smets, Constant P. Van Schayck, et al
Volume
11
Issue
1
Pages
e1001596
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001596
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492409
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904844
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24492409
Web of Science
000337975600015
Scopus
84893751895
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/preterm-birth-childhood-wheezing-disorders-systematic-review-metaanalysis-2
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jasper V.", "last_name"=>"Been", "scopus_author_id"=>"16686521000"}, {"first_name"=>"Marlies J.", "last_name"=>"Lugtenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"56031223900"}, {"first_name"=>"Eline", "last_name"=>"Smets", "scopus_author_id"=>"56032428700"}, {"first_name"=>"Constant P.", "last_name"=>"van Schayck", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006331532"}, {"first_name"=>"Boris W.", "last_name"=>"Kramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201946649"}, {"first_name"=>"Monique", "last_name"=>"Mommers", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603607979"}, {"first_name"=>"Aziz", "last_name"=>"Sheikh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202522962"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"372349018", "pmid"=>"24492409", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596", "sgr"=>"84893751895", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893751895"}, "id"=>"e0905110-a0d8-387c-8315-cf7398a08e39", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995-23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated \"dose-response\" associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29-1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61-3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55-3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual confounding.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: There is compelling evidence that preterm birth-particularly very preterm birth-increases the risk of asthma. Given the projected global increases in children surviving preterm births, research now needs to focus on understanding underlying mechanisms, and then to translate these insights into the development of preventive interventions.\\n\\nREVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42013004965.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/preterm-birth-childhood-wheezing-disorders-systematic-review-metaanalysis-2", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>29, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>29}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363642"], "description"=>"<p>WHO GHL, World Health Organization Global Health Library; WHOLIS, World Health Organization Library Information System.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "outlining"], "article_id"=>915875, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flowchart_outlining_study_selection_/915875", "title"=>"Flowchart outlining study selection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363643"], "description"=>"<p>Heterogeneity: <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 82% (95% CI 75%–87%). PTB, preterm birth; WD, wheezing disorders.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "unadjusted", "preterm", "wheezing"], "article_id"=>915876, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_unadjusted_association_between_preterm_birth_and_childhood_wheezing_disorders_/915876", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of unadjusted association between preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363645"], "description"=>"<p>Subgroups taken from individual studies noted in parentheses. Heterogeneity: <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 80% (95% CI 68%–86%). Individual study adjustment for the primary confounders is depicted. Additional confounders adjusted for are outlined in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed.1001596.s019\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>. FH, family history; LRI, lower respiratory infection; PTB, preterm birth; WD, wheezing disorders.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "adjusted", "preterm", "wheezing"], "article_id"=>915878, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_adjusted_association_between_preterm_birth_and_childhood_wheezing_disorders_/915878", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of adjusted association between preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363647"], "description"=>"<p>Heterogeneity: <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 90% (95% CI 85%–92%). Individual study adjustment for the primary confounders is depicted. Additional confounders adjusted for are outlined in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed.1001596.s019\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>. FH, family history; WD, wheezing disorders.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "adjusted", "gestational", "wheezing"], "article_id"=>915880, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_adjusted_dose_8211_response_association_between_gestational_age_per_week_increase_and_childhood_wheezing_disorders_/915880", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of adjusted dose–response association between gestational age (per week increase) and childhood wheezing disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363652"], "description"=>"<p>(A) unadjusted effect estimates; (B) adjusted effect estimates. Subgroups taken from individual studies noted in parentheses. Heterogeneity: <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> (unadjusted) = 62% (95% CI 9%–79%); <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> (adjusted) = 0% (95% CI 0%–68%). Confounders adjusted for in individual studies are outlined in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed-1001596-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed.1001596.s019\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>. LRI, lower respiratory infection; PTB, preterm birth; WD, wheezing disorders.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "preterm", "wheezing"], "article_id"=>915883, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_association_between_very_preterm_birth_and_childhood_wheezing_disorders_/915883", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of association between very preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363654"], "description"=>"<p>(A) unadjusted effect estimates; (B) adjusted effect estimates. Subgroups taken from individual studies noted in parentheses. Heterogeneity: <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> (unadjusted) = 92% (95% CI 87%–94%); <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> (adjusted) = 89% (95% CI 82%–93%). Confounders adjusted for in individual studies are outlined in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed-1001596-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed.1001596.s019\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>. LRI, lower respiratory infection; PTB, preterm birth; WD, wheezing disorders.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "moderately", "preterm", "wheezing"], "article_id"=>915885, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_association_between_moderately_preterm_birth_and_childhood_wheezing_disorders_/915885", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of association between moderately preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363655"], "description"=>"<p>(A) unadjusted association measures; (B) adjusted association measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "studies", "unadjusted", "adjusted"], "article_id"=>915886, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Funnel_plots_for_studies_reporting_unadjusted_and_adjusted_association_measures_/915886", "title"=>"Funnel plots for studies reporting unadjusted and adjusted association measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363656"], "description"=>"a<p>Please see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed.1001596.s018\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a> for detailed assessment.</p>b<p>≥3 patient encounters ≥14 d apart, with a diagnosis of asthma or wheezing; and/or ≥1 such encounter with a prescription for oral corticosteroids between 2 d before and 7 d after the encounter; and/or ≥1 hospitalisations for ≥24 h or until death occurred, with a diagnosis of asthma or wheezing; and/or ≥4 dispensing events ≥14 d apart, for which selected asthma medications were prescribed plus ≥1 encounters with a diagnosis of asthma or wheezing; and/or death outside the hospital due to asthma or wheezing.</p><p>ATC, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System; GA, gestational age; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; KPNC, Kaiser Permanente Northern California; KPSC, Kaiser Permanente Southern California; LMP, last menstrual period; PC, prospective cohort; RC, retrospective cohort.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "included", "cohort"], "article_id"=>915887, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_included_studies_cohort_studies_/915887", "title"=>"Characteristics of included studies: cohort studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363657"], "description"=>"a<p>Please see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596#pmed.1001596.s018\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a> for detailed assessment.</p>b<p>High probability of asthma defined as ≥4 out of the following five items: (1) ≥1 of the following: cough, wheeze, or difficulty breathing; (2) ≥1 of the following: recurrent cough, wheeze, and/or difficulty breathing; atopic history in child; history of asthma in first-degree relative; (3) ≥3 of the following: fast breathing, chest indrawing, prolonged expiration, or rhonchi; (4) good response to bronchodilators; (5) chest X-ray normal or showing hyperinflation.</p><p>CC, case control; CS, cross-sectional; GA, gestational age; NDI, neurodevelopmental impairment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "included", "cross-sectional"], "article_id"=>915888, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_included_studies_case_control_and_cross_sectional_studies_/915888", "title"=>"Characteristics of included studies: case control and cross-sectional studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363658"], "description"=>"_", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma"], "article_id"=>915889, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_regression_analysis_according_to_study_characteristics_/915889", "title"=>"Meta-regression analysis according to study characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363666", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363667", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363668", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363669", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363670", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363671", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363672", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363673", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363674", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363675", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363676", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363677", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363678", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363679", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363680", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363681", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363682", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363683", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363684", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363685", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1363686"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. </p><p>We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%.</p><p>Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual confounding.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>There is compelling evidence that preterm birth—particularly very preterm birth—increases the risk of asthma. Given the projected global increases in children surviving preterm births, research now needs to focus on understanding underlying mechanisms, and then to translate these insights into the development of preventive interventions.</p><p>Review Registration</p><p>PROSPERO <a href=\"http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42013004965#.UrDkxuKFfws\" target=\"_blank\">CRD42013004965</a></p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Observational studies", "Systematic reviews", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Lifecourse epidemiology", "Pediatric epidemiology", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "Pediatric pulmonology", "Public health", "Child health", "Pulmonology", "asthma", "wheezing", "systematic"], "article_id"=>915897, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Jasper V. Been", "Marlies J. Lugtenberg", "Eline Smets", "Constant P. van Schayck", "Boris W. Kramer", "Monique Mommers", "Aziz Sheikh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001596.s021"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>66, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preterm_Birth_and_Childhood_Wheezing_Disorders_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis_/915897", "title"=>"Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-28 02:43:41"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pediatrics", "average_usage"=>[304, 478]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pulmonology", "average_usage"=>[261, 417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[302]}]}
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