The Effectiveness of Community Action in Reducing Risky Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial
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{"title"=>"The Effectiveness of Community Action in Reducing Risky Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anthony", "last_name"=>"Shakeshaft", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701800089"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Doran", "scopus_author_id"=>"35576476000"}, {"first_name"=>"Dennis", "last_name"=>"Petrie", "scopus_author_id"=>"25321141100"}, {"first_name"=>"Courtney", "last_name"=>"Breen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007023590"}, {"first_name"=>"Alys", "last_name"=>"Havard", "scopus_author_id"=>"8396094300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ansari", "last_name"=>"Abudeen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56121361500"}, {"first_name"=>"Elissa", "last_name"=>"Harwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"55428886700"}, {"first_name"=>"Anton", "last_name"=>"Clifford", "scopus_author_id"=>"36518440300"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"D'Este", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602084604"}, {"first_name"=>"Stuart", "last_name"=>"Gilmour", "scopus_author_id"=>"8561716600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rob", "last_name"=>"Sanson-Fisher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102271530"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491676", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898999279", "sgr"=>"84898999279", "pui"=>"372909847", "isbn"=>"1549-1676", "pmid"=>"24618831", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617"}, "id"=>"26d4f1b1-0055-3791-aa89-e700a91c6385", "abstract"=>"Background: The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data.; Methods and Findings: We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009) were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n = 2,977 and 2,255, respectively) were the following: long-term risky drinking, short-term high-risk drinking, short-term risky drinking, weekly consumption, hazardous/harmful alcohol use, and experience of alcohol harm. At the 5% level of statistical significance, there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions were effective in the experimental, relative to control, communities for alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions, and for rates of risky alcohol consumption and hazardous/harmful alcohol use. Although respondents in the experimental communities reported statistically significantly lower average weekly consumption (1.90 fewer standard drinks per week, 95% CI = -3.37 to -0.43, p = 0.01) and less alcohol-related verbal abuse (odds ratio = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.96, p = 0.04) post-intervention, the low survey response rates (40% and 24% for the pre- and post-intervention surveys, respectively) require conservative interpretation. The main limitations of this study are as follows: (1) that the study may have been under-powered to detect differences in routinely collected data outcomes as statistically significant, and (2) the low survey response rates.; Conclusions: This RCT provides little evidence that community action significantly reduces risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, other than potential reductions in self-reported average weekly consumption and experience of alcohol-related verbal abuse. Complementary legislative action may be required to more effectively reduce alcohol harms.; Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000123448.;", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effectiveness-community-action-reducing-risky-alcohol-consumption-harm-cluster-randomised-controlled-8", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>41, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>13, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>41}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>13}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414714"], "description"=>"a<p>2005 data were excluded from this analysis to allow for the anticipated lag between the implementation and effectiveness of the intervention.</p>b<p>Number (<i>n</i>) and rate per 1,000 population (rate) per year, averaged across experimental (<i>n</i> = 10) and control (<i>n</i> = 10) communities.</p>c<p>Standard error obtained using jack-knife estimate because of the small number of clusters.</p>d<p>Adjusted for over-dispersion, correlation within communities, community population size, seasonal effects, trends over time, and pre-intervention values. The interaction term tests whether the post-intervention RR for experimental communities is statistically significantly different to that of control communities, after adjusting for pre-intervention ratios.</p>e<p>Unadjusted analysis, controlling for clustering (and population size) only.</p>f<p>Statistically significantly fewer admissions pre-intervention in the experimental, compared to control, communities (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.86, <i>p</i> = 0.02).</p>g<p>Statistically significant at the 5% level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "alcohol-related", "inpatient"], "article_id"=>957645, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effectiveness_of_the_intervention_on_alcohol_related_crime_traffic_crashes_and_inpatient_hospital_admissions_/957645", "title"=>"Effectiveness of the intervention on alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and inpatient hospital admissions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414713"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean (95% CI) or percent (95% CI).</p>a<p>Gross weekly household income ≥ AUD$700 per week.</p>b<p>Statistically significant difference–the CI for the post-intervention survey does not overlap with the CI for the pre-intervention survey.</p>c<p>For the purpose of the survey, de facto means living with a partner without a formal marriage/civil union.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "communities", "pre-intervention", "post-intervention"], "article_id"=>957644, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_characteristics_of_the_experimental_and_control_communities_for_the_pre_intervention_2005_and_post_intervention_2010_surveys_/957644", "title"=>"Demographic characteristics of the experimental and control communities for the pre-intervention (2005) and post-intervention (2010) surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414718", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414719", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414720"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000–20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department–based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001–2009) were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (<i>n</i> = 2,977 and 2,255, respectively) were the following: long-term risky drinking, short-term high-risk drinking, short-term risky drinking, weekly consumption, hazardous/harmful alcohol use, and experience of alcohol harm. At the 5% level of statistical significance, there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions were effective in the experimental, relative to control, communities for alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions, and for rates of risky alcohol consumption and hazardous/harmful alcohol use. Although respondents in the experimental communities reported statistically significantly lower average weekly consumption (1.90 fewer standard drinks per week, 95% CI = −3.37 to −0.43, <i>p</i> = 0.01) and less alcohol-related verbal abuse (odds ratio = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.96, <i>p</i> = 0.04) post-intervention, the low survey response rates (40% and 24% for the pre- and post-intervention surveys, respectively) require conservative interpretation. The main limitations of this study are as follows: (1) that the study may have been under-powered to detect differences in routinely collected data outcomes as statistically significant, and (2) the low survey response rates.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>This RCT provides little evidence that community action significantly reduces risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, other than potential reductions in self-reported average weekly consumption and experience of alcohol-related verbal abuse. Complementary legislative action may be required to more effectively reduce alcohol harms.</p><p>Trial registration</p><p>Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry <a href=\"https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81698\" target=\"_blank\">ACTRN12607000123448</a></p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "reducing", "randomised", "controlled"], "article_id"=>957649, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>[nil, nil, nil], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>26, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Effectiveness_of_Community_Action_in_Reducing_Risky_Alcohol_Consumption_and_Harm_A_Cluster_Randomised_Controlled_Trial/957649", "title"=>"The Effectiveness of Community Action in Reducing Risky Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-12 17:44:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414709"], "description"=>"<p>*Non-alcohol-related times were graphed to check whether the intervention simply shifted crimes from alcohol to non-alcohol times. Non-alcohol times were Monday 6 am–Monday 6 pm, Tuesday 6 am–Tuesday 2 pm, Wednesday 10 am–Wednesday 2 pm, Thursday 6 am–Thursday 2 pm, and Friday 6 am–Friday 10 am <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617#pmed.1001617-Breen3\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "alcohol-related", "offences", "january", "december"], "article_id"=>957640, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rates_of_alcohol_related_street_offences_per_1_000_population_per_quarter_for_experimental_and_control_communities_1_January_2001_8211_31_December_2009_/957640", "title"=>"Rates of alcohol-related street offences per 1,000 population, per quarter, for experimental and control communities, 1 January 2001–31 December 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414716"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean (standard deviation).</p>a<p>Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia score–higher scores indicate greater remoteness.</p>b<p>Socio-Economic Index for Areas score–higher scores indicate greater advantage.</p>c<p>Per 10,000 population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "separately"], "article_id"=>957647, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Community_level_summary_statistics_pre_intervention_separately_for_experimental_and_control_communities_/957647", "title"=>"Community-level summary statistics pre-intervention, separately for experimental and control communities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414717"], "description"=>"a<p>This intervention was expected to have an ongoing impact over the post-intervention period (2006–2009).</p>b<p>Commenced March 2004.</p>c<p>No GP SBI training occurred in control communities.</p>d<p>The timing of these interventions was dictated by opportunities to expand existing programs to include the AARC experimental communities.</p>e<p>Commenced October 2004.</p>f<p>The timing of these interventions was dictated by having access to the expertise needed to develop and implement the interventions relatively quickly.</p>g<p>Eight of the control communities also had at least one sports club enrolled in this program.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "interventions", "timeline"], "article_id"=>957648, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_interventions_and_the_timeline_of_their_implementation_and_the_timing_of_the_community_surveys_/957648", "title"=>"Summary of the interventions and the timeline of their implementation, and the timing of the community surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414715"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of the AARC project interventions and their costs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "aarc", "interventions"], "article_id"=>957646, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_AARC_project_interventions_and_their_costs_/957646", "title"=>"Summary of the AARC project interventions and their costs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414712"], "description"=>"a<p>Average number of respondents at-risk in each community (n) and the proportion averaged across experimental (<i>n</i> = 10) and control (<i>n</i> = 10) communities.</p>b<p>Mean for linear regression outcome.</p>c<p>Standard error for linear regression outcome.</p>d<p>Mean difference for linear regression outcome.</p>e<p>Standard error obtained using jack-knife estimate because of the small number of clusters.</p>f<p>Adjusted for age and sex distributions, and pre-intervention values. The interaction term tests whether the post-intervention OR for experimental communities is statistically significantly different to that of control communities, after adjusting for pre-intervention ratios.</p>g<p>Unadjusted analysis, controlling for clustering only.</p>h<p>Statistically significant at the 5% level.</p>i<p>Adjusted for age and sex distributions, and pre-intervention values. The interaction term tests whether the post-intervention mean for experimental communities is statistically significantly different to control communities, after adjusting for pre-intervention means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "self-reported"], "article_id"=>957643, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effectiveness_of_the_intervention_on_self_reported_consumption_and_harms_/957643", "title"=>"Effectiveness of the intervention on self-reported consumption and harms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1414711"], "description"=>"<p>*Non-alcohol-related times were graphed to check whether the intervention simply shifted crimes from alcohol to non-alcohol times. Non-alcohol times were Monday 6 am–Monday 6 pm, Tuesday 6 am–Tuesday 2 pm, Wednesday 10 am–Wednesday 2 pm, Thursday 6 am–Thursday 2 pm, and Friday 6 am–Friday 10 am <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617#pmed.1001617-Breen3\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "preventive medicine", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "alcohol-related", "january", "december"], "article_id"=>957642, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anthony Shakeshaft", "Christopher Doran", "Dennis Petrie", "Courtney Breen", "Alys Havard", "Ansari Abudeen", "Elissa Harwood", "Anton Clifford", "Catherine d'Este", "Stuart Gilmour", "Rob Sanson-Fisher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001617.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rates_of_total_alcohol_related_crime_per_1_000_population_per_quarter_for_experimental_and_control_communities_1_January_2001_8211_31_December_2009_/957642", "title"=>"Rates of total alcohol-related crime per 1,000 population, per quarter, for experimental and control communities, 1 January 2001–31 December 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-11 02:44:13"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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