Burden of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Related to Tobacco Smoking among Adults Aged ≥45 Years in Asia: A Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts
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{"title"=>"Burden of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Related to Tobacco Smoking among Adults Aged ≥45 Years in Asia: A Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wei", "last_name"=>"Zheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"35381589100"}, {"first_name"=>"Dale F.", "last_name"=>"McLerran", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603909662"}, {"first_name"=>"Betsy A.", "last_name"=>"Rolland", "scopus_author_id"=>"37038478900"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhenming", "last_name"=>"Fu", "scopus_author_id"=>"52163332100"}, {"first_name"=>"Paolo", "last_name"=>"Boffetta", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102621930"}, {"first_name"=>"Jiang", "last_name"=>"He", "scopus_author_id"=>"56114339600"}, {"first_name"=>"Prakash Chandra", "last_name"=>"Gupta", "scopus_author_id"=>"35398625000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kunnambath", "last_name"=>"Ramadas", "scopus_author_id"=>"14825815100"}, {"first_name"=>"Shoichiro", "last_name"=>"Tsugane", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005204049"}, {"first_name"=>"Fujiko", "last_name"=>"Irie", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006830332"}, {"first_name"=>"Akiko", "last_name"=>"Tamakoshi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006797376"}, {"first_name"=>"Yu Tang", "last_name"=>"Gao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55628578539"}, {"first_name"=>"Woon Puay", "last_name"=>"Koh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102038885"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiao Ou", "last_name"=>"Shu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55630916600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kotaro", "last_name"=>"Ozasa", "scopus_author_id"=>"35227759600"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshikazu", "last_name"=>"Nishino", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102096060"}, {"first_name"=>"Ichiro", "last_name"=>"Tsuji", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102034375"}, {"first_name"=>"Hideo", "last_name"=>"Tanaka", "scopus_author_id"=>"55740210500"}, {"first_name"=>"Chien Jen", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501959692"}, {"first_name"=>"Jian Min", "last_name"=>"Yuan", "scopus_author_id"=>"34668744500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoon Ok", "last_name"=>"Ahn", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202402907"}, {"first_name"=>"Keun Young", "last_name"=>"Yoo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202592825"}, {"first_name"=>"Habibul", "last_name"=>"Ahsan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005171551"}, {"first_name"=>"Wen Harn", "last_name"=>"Pan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402219783"}, {"first_name"=>"You Lin", "last_name"=>"Qiao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202252888"}, {"first_name"=>"Dongfeng", "last_name"=>"Gu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55802487000"}, {"first_name"=>"Mangesh Suryakant", "last_name"=>"Pednekar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603057074"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"Sauvaget", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701806781"}, {"first_name"=>"Norie", "last_name"=>"Sawada", "scopus_author_id"=>"35307936200"}, {"first_name"=>"Toshimi", "last_name"=>"Sairenchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507303385"}, {"first_name"=>"Gong", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405755505"}, {"first_name"=>"Renwei", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"8337820300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yong Bing", "last_name"=>"Xiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201979437"}, {"first_name"=>"Waka", "last_name"=>"Ohishi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603185673"}, {"first_name"=>"Masako", "last_name"=>"Kakizaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005258555"}, {"first_name"=>"Takashi", "last_name"=>"Watanabe", "scopus_author_id"=>"55628542076"}, {"first_name"=>"Isao", "last_name"=>"Oze", "scopus_author_id"=>"25958341500"}, {"first_name"=>"San Lin", "last_name"=>"You", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201516961"}, {"first_name"=>"Yumi", "last_name"=>"Sugawara", "scopus_author_id"=>"35226621900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lesley M.", "last_name"=>"Butler", "scopus_author_id"=>"8616819900"}, {"first_name"=>"Dong Hyun", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574224232"}, {"first_name"=>"Sue K.", "last_name"=>"Park", "scopus_author_id"=>"8085325400"}, {"first_name"=>"Faruque", "last_name"=>"Parvez", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603099106"}, {"first_name"=>"Shao Yuan", "last_name"=>"Chuang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202515712"}, {"first_name"=>"Jin Hu", "last_name"=>"Fan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402794330"}, {"first_name"=>"Chen Yang", "last_name"=>"Shen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35230682400"}, {"first_name"=>"Yu", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55938424600"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric J.", "last_name"=>"Grant", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201644443"}, {"first_name"=>"Jung Eun", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"56624134900"}, {"first_name"=>"Rashmi", "last_name"=>"Sinha", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402857340"}, {"first_name"=>"Keitaro", "last_name"=>"Matsuo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401602814"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Thornquist", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004018893"}, {"first_name"=>"Manami", "last_name"=>"Inoue", "scopus_author_id"=>"8889234100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ziding", "last_name"=>"Feng", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403442940"}, {"first_name"=>"Daehee", "last_name"=>"Kang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402889335"}, {"first_name"=>"John D.", "last_name"=>"Potter", "scopus_author_id"=>"35380121900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24756146", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631", "sgr"=>"84900415399", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic) 1549-1277 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84900415399", "issn"=>"15491676", "pui"=>"373076984"}, "id"=>"a1b48c2c-ee04-3c7b-9ae5-37f6dd6f0e9c", "abstract"=>"Background: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest.; Methods and Findings: We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51) and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58) elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2%) and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0%) of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700). Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y.; Conclusions: Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.; ", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/burden-total-causespecific-mortality-related-tobacco-smoking-among-adults-aged-45-years-asia-pooled", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555644"], "description"=>"a<p>Excluding participants with less than 1 y of follow-up.</p>b<p>Adjusted for age, education, rural/urban resident, marital status, and body mass index.</p><p>Analyses were conducted among those age 45 y or older.</p>c<p>Excluding current smokers with missing information on pack-years of smoking.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "smoking", "cardiovascular", "respiratory", "diseases", "asian"], "article_id"=>1075326, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_tobacco_smoking_with_risk_of_death_from_all_causes_cardiovascular_diseases_cancer_or_respiratory_diseases_in_major_Asian_male_populations_/1075326", "title"=>"Association of tobacco smoking with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or respiratory diseases in major Asian male populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555673", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555674", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555675"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged ≥45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan—accounting for ∼71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37–1.51) and 1.48-fold (1.38–1.58) elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%–17.2%) and 3.3% (2.6%–4.0%) of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged ≥45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of ∼1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000–1,744,700). Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged ≥45 y.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged ≥45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "cause-specific", "smoking", "adults", "aged", "years", "pooled", "21"], "article_id"=>1075355, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burden_of_Total_and_Cause_Specific_Mortality_Related_to_Tobacco_Smoking_among_Adults_Aged_8805_45_Years_in_Asia_A_Pooled_Analysis_of_21_Cohorts_/1075355", "title"=>"Burden of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Related to Tobacco Smoking among Adults Aged ≥45 Years in Asia: A Pooled Analysis of 21 Cohorts", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555638"], "description"=>"a<p>Number of deaths among ever-smokers/never-smokers are presented.</p>b<p>HRs estimated for ever-smokers compared with never-smokers and adjusted for age, education, rural/urban residence, marital status, and body mass index; data from participants with <1 y of follow-up are excluded.</p><p>Analyses were conducted among those age 45 y or older.</p>c<p>HR not estimated because of small sample size.</p><p>CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "smoking", "cause-specific", "populations"], "article_id"=>1075322, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_tobacco_smoking_with_risk_of_cause_specific_death_by_study_populations_in_Asia_/1075322", "title"=>"Association of tobacco smoking with risk of cause-specific death by study populations in Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555646"], "description"=>"a<p>Excluding participants with less than 1 y of follow-up.</p>b<p>Adjusted for age, education, rural/urban resident, marital status, and body mass index.</p><p>Analyses were conducted among those age 45 y or older.</p>c<p>Excluding current smokers with missing information on pack-years of smoking.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "smoking", "cardiovascular", "respiratory", "diseases", "asian"], "article_id"=>1075330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_tobacco_smoking_with_risk_of_death_from_all_causes_cardiovascular_diseases_cancer_or_respiratory_diseases_in_major_East_Asian_female_populations_/1075330", "title"=>"Association of tobacco smoking with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or respiratory diseases in major East Asian female populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555660"], "description"=>"a<p>Including only participants eligible for the current analysis.</p>b<p>Deaths from unknown causes are not included.</p><p>3 Pref, Three Prefecture Cohort Study; CBCSP, Community-Based Cancer Screening Project; CHEFS, China National Hypertension Survey Epidemiology Follow-Up Study; CVDFACTS, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Two-Township Study; JACC, Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, JPHC, Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study; KMCC, Korea Multi-Center Cancer Cohort; NA, not available; RERF, Radiation Effects Research Foundation; SCHS, Singapore Chinese Health Study; SCS, Shanghai Cohort Study; SMHS, Shanghai Men's Health Study; SWHS, Shanghai Women's Health Study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "participating", "cohorts", "asia", "cohort"], "article_id"=>1075343, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_participating_cohorts_in_the_Asia_Cohort_Consortium_/1075343", "title"=>"Characteristics of participating cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555657"], "description"=>"a<p>Number of deaths among ever-smokers/never-smokers are presented.</p>b<p>Adjusted for age, education, rural/urban resident, marital status, and body mass index; data from participants with <1 y of follow-up are excluded.</p><p>Analyses were conducted among those age 45 y or older.</p>c<p>Including data from mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, and Japan.</p>d<p>Including data from India and Bangladesh.</p>e<p>HR not estimated because of small sample size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "smoking", "cardiovascular", "respiratory", "diseases", "populations"], "article_id"=>1075339, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_tobacco_smoking_with_risk_of_death_from_cardiovascular_diseases_cancer_or_respiratory_diseases_in_selected_study_populations_in_Asia_/1075339", "title"=>"Association of tobacco smoking with risk of death from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or respiratory diseases in selected study populations in Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555641"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates are provided for populations age 45 y or older.</p>a<p>Because of the small sample size in the current study for these populations, data for smoking prevalence rates were obtained from other sources: Bangladeshi men and women: <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631#pmed.1001631-Giovino1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>, Taiwanese women: <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631#pmed.1001631-Liaw1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>, and Korean women: <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631#pmed.1001631-Jee1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>.</p>b<p>PARs were estimated using HRs derived from all South Asian cohorts combined because of unstable HR estimates using Bangladeshi data alone.</p>c<p>Mortality data for Taiwan were obtained from <a href=\"http://www.mohw.gov.tw/CHT/Ministry/Index.aspx\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.mohw.gov.tw/CHT/Ministry/Index.aspx</a>.</p>d<p>PARs were estimated using weighted HRs and smoking prevalence of the study populations.</p><p>Thus, the number of deaths attributable to smoking in these populations may not be equal to the sum of the numbers of deaths from the countries in the population areas. East Asia: mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, and Japan. South Asia: Bangladesh and India. All populations: all seven countries/regions listed above.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "attributable", "deaths", "smoking", "asian"], "article_id"=>1075324, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Smoking_prevalence_population_attributable_risk_and_number_of_deaths_due_to_tobacco_smoking_in_selected_Asian_populations_/1075324", "title"=>"Smoking prevalence, population attributable risk, and number of deaths due to tobacco smoking in selected Asian populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555636"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates are provided for populations age 45 y or older.</p>a<p>PARs were estimated using HRs derived from all South Asian cohorts combined because of unstable HR estimates using Bangladeshi data alone.</p>b<p>PARs were estimated using weighted HRs and smoking prevalence of the study populations.</p><p>Thus, the number of deaths attributable to smoking in these populations may not be equal to the sum of the numbers of deaths from countries in the population areas. East Asia: mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, and Japan. South Asia: Bangladesh and India. All populations: all seven countries/regions listed above.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "cause-specific", "deaths", "smoking", "asian"], "article_id"=>1075319, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Population_attributable_risk_and_number_of_cause_specific_deaths_due_to_tobacco_smoking_in_selected_Asian_populations_/1075319", "title"=>"Population-attributable risk and number of cause-specific deaths due to tobacco smoking in selected Asian populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555652"], "description"=>"a<p>Adjusted for age, education, rural/urban resident, marital status, and body mass index; data from participants with <1 y of follow-up are excluded.</p><p>Analyses were conducted among those age 45 y or older.</p>b<p>Including data from mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, and Japan.</p>c<p>Including data from India and Bangladesh.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "smoking", "causes", "populations"], "article_id"=>1075333, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wei Zheng", "Dale F. McLerran", "Betsy A. Rolland", "Zhenming Fu", "Paolo Boffetta", "Jiang He", "Prakash Chandra Gupta", "Kunnambath Ramadas", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Fujiko Irie", "Akiko Tamakoshi", "Yu-Tang Gao", "Woon-Puay Koh", "Xiao-Ou Shu", "Kotaro Ozasa", "Yoshikazu Nishino", "Ichiro Tsuji", "Hideo Tanaka", "Chien-Jen Chen", "Jian-Min Yuan", "Yoon-Ok Ahn", "Keun-Young Yoo", "Habibul Ahsan", "Wen-Harn Pan", "You-Lin Qiao", "Dongfeng Gu", "Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar", "Catherine Sauvaget", "Norie Sawada", "Toshimi Sairenchi", "Gong Yang", "Renwei Wang", "Yong-Bing Xiang", "Waka Ohishi", "Masako Kakizaki", "Takashi Watanabe", "Isao Oze", "San-Lin You", "Yumi Sugawara", "Lesley M. Butler", "Dong-Hyun Kim", "Sue K. Park", "Faruque Parvez", "Shao-Yuan Chuang", "Jin-Hu Fan", "Chen-Yang Shen", "Yu Chen", "Eric J. Grant", "Jung Eun Lee", "Rashmi Sinha", "Keitaro Matsuo", "Mark Thornquist", "Manami Inoue", "Ziding Feng", "Daehee Kang", "John D. Potter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_tobacco_smoking_with_risk_of_death_from_all_causes_in_selected_study_populations_in_Asia_/1075333", "title"=>"Association of tobacco smoking with risk of death from all causes in selected study populations in Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-22 10:33:41"}

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