Evaluation of the Lung Cancer Risks at Which to Screen Ever- and Never-Smokers: Screening Rules Applied to the PLCO and NLST Cohorts
Publication Date
December 02, 2014
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Martin C. Tammemägi, Timothy R. Church, William G. Hocking, Gerard A. Silvestri, et al
Volume
11
Issue
12
Pages
e1001764
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001764
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460915
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4251899
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25460915
Web of Science
000347002300002
Scopus
84920973963
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/evaluation-lung-cancer-risks-screen-ever-neversmokers-screening-rules-applied-plco-nlst-cohorts
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Evaluation of the Lung Cancer Risks at Which to Screen Ever- and Never-Smokers: Screening Rules Applied to the PLCO and NLST Cohorts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Martin C.", "last_name"=>"Tammemägi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508015967"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy R.", "last_name"=>"Church", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102848504"}, {"first_name"=>"William G.", "last_name"=>"Hocking", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004953143"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerard A.", "last_name"=>"Silvestri", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102565287"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul A.", "last_name"=>"Kvale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006924144"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas L.", "last_name"=>"Riley", "scopus_author_id"=>"25654086700"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Commins", "scopus_author_id"=>"36130940600"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine D.", "last_name"=>"Berg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202716872"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491676", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84920973963", "sgr"=>"84920973963", "pui"=>"601416061", "isbn"=>"1549-1277", "pmid"=>"25460915", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764"}, "id"=>"42eaeddc-5a15-378e-a860-21ba68d29919", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Lung cancer risks at which individuals should be screened with computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer are undecided. This study's objectives are to identify a risk threshold for selecting individuals for screening, to compare its efficiency with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria for identifying screenees, and to determine whether never-smokers should be screened. Lung cancer risks are compared between smokers aged 55-64 and ≥ 65-80 y. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Applying the PLCO(m2012) model, a model based on 6-y lung cancer incidence, we identified the risk threshold above which National Lung Screening Trial (NLST, n = 53,452) CT arm lung cancer mortality rates were consistently lower than rates in the chest X-ray (CXR) arm. We evaluated the USPSTF and PLCO(m2012) risk criteria in intervention arm (CXR) smokers (n = 37,327) of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). The numbers of smokers selected for screening, and the sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying lung cancers were assessed. A modified model (PLCOall2014) evaluated risks in never-smokers. At PLCO(m2012) risk ≥ 0.0151, the 65th percentile of risk, the NLST CT arm mortality rates are consistently below the CXR arm's rates. The number needed to screen to prevent one lung cancer death in the 65th to 100th percentile risk group is 255 (95% CI 143 to 1,184), and in the 30th to <65th percentile risk group is 963 (95% CI 291 to -754); the number needed to screen could not be estimated in the <30th percentile risk group because of absence of lung cancer deaths. When applied to PLCO intervention arm smokers, compared to the USPSTF criteria, the PLCO(m2012) risk ≥ 0.0151 threshold selected 8.8% fewer individuals for screening (p<0.001) but identified 12.4% more lung cancers (sensitivity 80.1% [95% CI 76.8%-83.0%] versus 71.2% [95% CI 67.6%-74.6%], p<0.001), had fewer false-positives (specificity 66.2% [95% CI 65.7%-66.7%] versus 62.7% [95% CI 62.2%-63.1%], p<0.001), and had higher PPV (4.2% [95% CI 3.9%-4.6%] versus 3.4% [95% CI 3.1%-3.7%], p<0.001). In total, 26% of individuals selected for screening based on USPSTF criteria had risks below the threshold PLCO(m2012) risk ≥ 0.0151. Of PLCO former smokers with quit time >15 y, 8.5% had PLCO(m2012) risk ≥ 0.0151. None of 65,711 PLCO never-smokers had PLCO(m2012) risk ≥ 0.0151. Risks and lung cancers were significantly greater in PLCO smokers aged ≥ 65-80 y than in those aged 55-64 y. This study omitted cost-effectiveness analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The USPSTF criteria for CT screening include some low-risk individuals and exclude some high-risk individuals. Use of the PLCO(m2012) risk ≥ 0.0151 criterion can improve screening efficiency. Currently, never-smokers should not be screened. Smokers aged ≥ 65-80 y are a high-risk group who may benefit from screening. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evaluation-lung-cancer-risks-screen-ever-neversmokers-screening-rules-applied-plco-nlst-cohorts", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>46, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>46}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813957"], "description"=>"<p>The PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151 threshold is marked by the dotted vertical line. The upper graph is right-truncated. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> is the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257504, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_PLCO_m2012_risk_and_natural_log_transformed_risk_in_PLCO_participants_stratified_by_age_dichotomized_at_65_y_/1257504", "title"=>"Distribution of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk and natural log-transformed risk in PLCO participants stratified by age dichotomized at 65 y.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1814029", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1814030", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1814031", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1814032"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Lung cancer risks at which individuals should be screened with computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer are undecided. This study's objectives are to identify a risk threshold for selecting individuals for screening, to compare its efficiency with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria for identifying screenees, and to determine whether never-smokers should be screened. Lung cancer risks are compared between smokers aged 55–64 and ≥65–80 y.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>Applying the PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> model, a model based on 6-y lung cancer incidence, we identified the risk threshold above which National Lung Screening Trial (NLST, <i>n = </i>53,452) CT arm lung cancer mortality rates were consistently lower than rates in the chest X-ray (CXR) arm. We evaluated the USPSTF and PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk criteria in intervention arm (CXR) smokers (<i>n = </i>37,327) of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). The numbers of smokers selected for screening, and the sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying lung cancers were assessed. A modified model (PLCO<sub>all2014</sub>) evaluated risks in never-smokers. At PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151, the 65th percentile of risk, the NLST CT arm mortality rates are consistently below the CXR arm's rates. The number needed to screen to prevent one lung cancer death in the 65th to 100th percentile risk group is 255 (95% CI 143 to 1,184), and in the 30th to <65th percentile risk group is 963 (95% CI 291 to −754); the number needed to screen could not be estimated in the <30th percentile risk group because of absence of lung cancer deaths. When applied to PLCO intervention arm smokers, compared to the USPSTF criteria, the PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151 threshold selected 8.8% fewer individuals for screening (<i>p<</i>0.001) but identified 12.4% more lung cancers (sensitivity 80.1% [95% CI 76.8%–83.0%] versus 71.2% [95% CI 67.6%–74.6%], <i>p<</i>0.001), had fewer false-positives (specificity 66.2% [95% CI 65.7%–66.7%] versus 62.7% [95% CI 62.2%–63.1%], <i>p<</i>0.001), and had higher PPV (4.2% [95% CI 3.9%–4.6%] versus 3.4% [95% CI 3.1%–3.7%], <i>p<</i>0.001). In total, 26% of individuals selected for screening based on USPSTF criteria had risks below the threshold PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151. Of PLCO former smokers with quit time >15 y, 8.5% had PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151. None of 65,711 PLCO never-smokers had PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151. Risks and lung cancers were significantly greater in PLCO smokers aged ≥65–80 y than in those aged 55–64 y. This study omitted cost-effectiveness analysis.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The USPSTF criteria for CT screening include some low-risk individuals and exclude some high-risk individuals. Use of the PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151 criterion can improve screening efficiency. Currently, never-smokers should not be screened. Smokers aged ≥65–80 y are a high-risk group who may benefit from screening.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257566, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>28, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_of_the_Lung_Cancer_Risks_at_Which_to_Screen_Ever_and_Never_Smokers_Screening_Rules_Applied_to_the_PLCO_and_NLST_Cohorts_/1257566", "title"=>"Evaluation of the Lung Cancer Risks at Which to Screen Ever- and Never-Smokers: Screening Rules Applied to the PLCO and NLST Cohorts", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813952"], "description"=>"<p>The risk threshold <i>p = </i>0.0151 is indicated by the vertical line. The graph is right-truncated. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> is the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257499, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_PLCO_m2012_risk_in_PLCO_intervention_arm_smokers_with_and_without_lung_cancer_diagnosed_in_6_y_of_follow_up_/1257499", "title"=>"Distribution of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk in PLCO intervention arm smokers with and without lung cancer diagnosed in 6 y of follow-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813966"], "description"=>"<p>PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> refers to the model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>, and described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p><p>*<i>p</i>-Value for PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk was by <i>t</i>-test with unequal variance applied to natural-log-transformed risk values. <i>p</i>-Values for comparing proportions were by chi-square test.</p>†<p>Because PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk distributions are right-skewed, geometric means are presented.</p><p>Comparison of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk and incident lung cancer in age strata of PLCO smokers dichotomized at age 65 y.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257513, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_PLCO_m2012_risk_and_incident_lung_cancer_in_age_strata_of_PLCO_smokers_dichotomized_at_age_65_y_/1257513", "title"=>"Comparison of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk and incident lung cancer in age strata of PLCO smokers dichotomized at age 65 y.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813964"], "description"=>"<p>Bold indicates informative cells in which disagreement exists between the two classification criteria. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> refers to the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p><p>Distribution of observations and lung cancer events by USPSTF criteria and PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151 criterion status in PLCO intervention arm smokers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257511, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>53, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_observations_and_lung_cancer_events_by_USPSTF_criteria_and_PLCO_m2012_risk_8805_0_0151_criterion_status_in_PLCO_intervention_arm_smokers_/1257511", "title"=>"Distribution of observations and lung cancer events by USPSTF criteria and PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151 criterion status in PLCO intervention arm smokers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813941"], "description"=>"<p>The vertical line indicates the PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk ≥0.0151 threshold. The graph is right-truncated. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> is the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257489, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_PLCO_m2012_risks_in_PLCO_ever_smokers_who_are_USPSTF_criteria_positive_or_are_NLST_participants_/1257489", "title"=>"Distribution of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risks in PLCO ever-smokers who are USPSTF-criteria-positive or are NLST participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813926"], "description"=>"<p>PLCO and NLST lung cancer cases and NLST lung cancer deaths were identified in 6 y of follow-up, and PLCO lung cancer deaths were identified in 11 y of follow-up. Calculations were based on PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> deciles of risk, and the percentiles shown are the midpoints of each decile range. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> refers to the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257474, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>56, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_lung_cancer_cases_and_deaths_in_PLCO_and_NLST_by_PLCO_m2012_percentiles_of_risk_/1257474", "title"=>"Number of lung cancer cases and deaths in PLCO and NLST by PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> percentiles of risk.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813934"], "description"=>"<p>CT is the LDCT screening arm; CXR is the CXR screening arm. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> refers to the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257482, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NLST_deaths_from_lung_cancer_and_competing_causes_by_trial_arm_and_decile_of_PLCO_m2012_risk_/1257482", "title"=>"NLST deaths from lung cancer and competing causes by trial arm and decile of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813945"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates were prepared for white former smokers who are 68 y old, are high-school graduates, have a body mass index of 27 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, have no family history of lung cancer, have no personal history of cancer, started smoking at age 14 y, and smoked on average 30 cigarettes per day. As the quit time increases, smoking duration correspondingly decreases. The dotted horizontal line indicates the PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> ≥0.0151 risk threshold. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> refers to the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257495, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PLCO_m2012_estimated_risks_for_high_risk_individuals_by_smoking_quit_time_in_former_smokers_/1257495", "title"=>"PLCO<sub>m2012</sub>-estimated risks for high-risk individuals by smoking quit time in former smokers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813916"], "description"=>"<p>PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> model risk decile boundaries were established in PLCO control smokers. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> is the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257464, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lung_cancer_mortality_rates_in_NLST_arms_by_PLCO_m2012_model_risk_deciles_/1257464", "title"=>"Lung cancer mortality rates in NLST arms by PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> model risk deciles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813961"], "description"=>"<p>PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> model risk decile boundaries were established in PLCO control smokers.</p><p>*Rate difference is incidence rate in CT arm per 10,000 minus incidence rate in CXR arm per 10,000. A negative absolute rate indicates a lower rate of lung cancer death in the CT arm compared to the CXR arm. PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> refers to the lung cancer risk prediction model described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764#pmed.1001764-Tammemgi1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p><p>NA, not applicable (because of zero occurring in denominator).</p><p>Mortality rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in NLST participants by trial arm and by decile of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["PLCOm 2012 model", "screening", "cxr", "Preventive Services Task Force", "USPSTF criteria", "individual", "lung cancer deaths", "PLCO intervention arm smokers", "Lung Cancer Risks", "PLCOm 2012 risk criteria", "lung cancer death", "risk threshold", "percentile risk group", "NLST Cohorts BackgroundLung cancer risks", "Screening Rules Applied", "Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial", "U.S", "lung cancers", "ppv", "National Lung Screening Trial", "ci", "NLST CT arm mortality rates"], "article_id"=>1257508, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Martin C. Tammemägi", "Timothy R. Church", "William G. Hocking", "Gerard A. Silvestri", "Paul A. Kvale", "Thomas L. Riley", "John Commins", "Christine D. Berg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001764.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mortality_rates_rate_ratios_and_rate_differences_in_NLST_participants_by_trial_arm_and_by_decile_of_PLCO_m2012_risk_/1257508", "title"=>"Mortality rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in NLST participants by trial arm and by decile of PLCO<sub>m2012</sub> risk.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:36:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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