Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents
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{"title"=>"Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Cristin E.", "last_name"=>"Kearns", "scopus_author_id"=>"56583906600"}, {"first_name"=>"Stanton A.", "last_name"=>"Glantz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103220592"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura A.", "last_name"=>"Schmidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401563889"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84925760129", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001798", "pui"=>"603611489", "issn"=>"15491676", "pmid"=>"25756179", "isbn"=>"1549-1676", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925760129"}, "id"=>"526511a2-79ff-3f27-8756-75be64d84150", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry's interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR's call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which can inform policy makers today. Industry opposition to current policy proposals-including a World Health Organization guideline on sugars proposed in 2014 and changes to the nutrition facts panel on packaged food in the US proposed in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration-should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that industry interests do not supersede public health goals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sugar-industry-influence-scientific-agenda-national-institute-dental-researchs-1971-national-caries", "reader_count"=>106, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1942854"], "description"=>"<p>In 1943, SRF was founded in New York, New York. In 1949, SA was created to oversee the research activities of SRF (the research arm) and the newly created Sugar Information (the public relations arm). In 1968, SRF dissociated from SA and was reorganized as ISRF. SA joined ISRF as a member (shown as a dotted line). In 1973, SA discontinued Sugar Information because there was no longer a meaningful separation of duties between SA and Sugar Information. In 1978, ISRF was reorganized to become WSRO, and SA joined WSRO as a member.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research priorities", "sugar industry", "beet sugar industry documents", "sugar Industry Influence", "policy makers today", "National Caries Program", "nutrition facts panel", "NIDR expert panel", "sugar industry documents", "World Health Organization guideline", "sugar consumption", "sugar industry submission", "National Institute", "tooth decay", "sugar industry interests", "ncp"], "article_id"=>1330941, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Cristin E. Kearns", "Stanton A. Glantz", "Laura A. Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001798.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_sugar_industry_organizations_operating_as_of_2015_the_World_Sugar_Research_Organisation_and_the_Sugar_Association_evolved_out_of_the_Sugar_Research_Foundation_/1330941", "title"=>"Two sugar industry organizations operating as of 2015, the World Sugar Research Organisation and the Sugar Association, evolved out of the Sugar Research Foundation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-10 03:28:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1942855"], "description"=>"<p>Timeline of events of sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research priorities", "sugar industry", "beet sugar industry documents", "sugar Industry Influence", "policy makers today", "National Caries Program", "nutrition facts panel", "NIDR expert panel", "sugar industry documents", "World Health Organization guideline", "sugar consumption", "sugar industry submission", "National Institute", "tooth decay", "sugar industry interests", "ncp"], "article_id"=>1330942, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Cristin E. Kearns", "Stanton A. Glantz", "Laura A. Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001798.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timeline_of_events_of_sugar_industry_influence_on_the_scientific_agenda_of_the_National_Institute_of_Dental_Research_8217_s_1971_National_Caries_Program_/1330942", "title"=>"Timeline of events of sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-10 03:28:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1942860"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which can inform policy makers today. Industry opposition to current policy proposals—including a World Health Organization guideline on sugars proposed in 2014 and changes to the nutrition facts panel on packaged food in the US proposed in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration—should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that industry interests do not supersede public health goals.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research priorities", "sugar industry", "beet sugar industry documents", "sugar Industry Influence", "policy makers today", "National Caries Program", "nutrition facts panel", "NIDR expert panel", "sugar industry documents", "World Health Organization guideline", "sugar consumption", "sugar industry submission", "National Institute", "tooth decay", "sugar industry interests", "ncp"], "article_id"=>1330947, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Cristin E. Kearns", "Stanton A. Glantz", "Laura A. Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001798", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sugar_Industry_Influence_on_the_Scientific_Agenda_of_the_National_Institute_of_Dental_Research_8217_s_1971_National_Caries_Program_A_Historical_Analysis_of_Internal_Documents_/1330947", "title"=>"Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-10 03:28:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1942858"], "description"=>"<p>N/A, not applicable.</p><p>Comparison of Research Priorities Identified by ISRF and the NIDR, 1969–1971.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research priorities", "sugar industry", "beet sugar industry documents", "sugar Industry Influence", "policy makers today", "National Caries Program", "nutrition facts panel", "NIDR expert panel", "sugar industry documents", "World Health Organization guideline", "sugar consumption", "sugar industry submission", "National Institute", "tooth decay", "sugar industry interests", "ncp"], "article_id"=>1330945, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Cristin E. Kearns", "Stanton A. Glantz", "Laura A. Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001798.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_Research_Priorities_Identified_by_ISRF_and_the_NIDR_1969_8211_1971_/1330945", "title"=>"Comparison of Research Priorities Identified by ISRF and the NIDR, 1969–1971.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-10 03:28:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1942856"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of membership of the NIDR Caries Task Force Steering Committee and ISRF Panel Meeting of Dental Caries Task Force.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research priorities", "sugar industry", "beet sugar industry documents", "sugar Industry Influence", "policy makers today", "National Caries Program", "nutrition facts panel", "NIDR expert panel", "sugar industry documents", "World Health Organization guideline", "sugar consumption", "sugar industry submission", "National Institute", "tooth decay", "sugar industry interests", "ncp"], "article_id"=>1330943, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Cristin E. Kearns", "Stanton A. Glantz", "Laura A. Schmidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001798.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_membership_of_the_NIDR_Caries_Task_Force_Steering_Committee_and_ISRF_Panel_Meeting_of_Dental_Caries_Task_Force_/1330943", "title"=>"Comparison of membership of the NIDR Caries Task Force Steering Committee and ISRF Panel Meeting of Dental Caries Task Force.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-10 03:28:17"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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