Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study
Publication Date
September 15, 2015
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Yasmina Molero, Paul Lichtenstein, Johan Zetterqvist, Clara Hellner Gumpert, et al
Volume
12
Issue
9
Pages
e1001875
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001875
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26372359
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4570770
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26372359
Web of Science
000362216200010
Scopus
84943175186
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-violent-crime-cohort-study-3
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yasmina", "last_name"=>"Molero", "scopus_author_id"=>"37077635600"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Lichtenstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005398112"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan", "last_name"=>"Zetterqvist", "scopus_author_id"=>"55349110800"}, {"first_name"=>"Clara Hellner", "last_name"=>"Gumpert", "scopus_author_id"=>"55880124900"}, {"first_name"=>"Seena", "last_name"=>"Fazel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003589504"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84943175186", "sgr"=>"84943175186", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875", "pui"=>"606283716", "pmid"=>"26372359", "isbn"=>"1549-1676", "issn"=>"15491676"}, "id"=>"bac27ae7-d70e-3b10-9f96-1f355484c6d9", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications. Information on all medications was extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, with complete national data on all dispensed medications. Information on violent crime convictions was extracted from the Swedish national crime register. Using within-individual models, there was an overall association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.32, p < 0.001, absolute risk = 1.0%). With age stratification, there was a significant association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions for individuals aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.73, p < 0.001, absolute risk = 3.0%). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25-34 y (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.95-1.52, p = 0.125, absolute risk = 1.6%), in those aged 35-44 y (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.83-1.35, p = 0.666, absolute risk = 1.2%), or in those aged 45 y or older (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.84-1.35, p = 0.594, absolute risk = 0.3%). Associations in those aged 15 to 24 y were also found for violent crime arrests with preliminary investigations (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16-1.41, p < 0.001), non-violent crime convictions (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.34, p < 0.001), non-violent crime arrests (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20, p < 0.001), non-fatal injuries from accidents (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.22-1.36, p < 0.001), and emergency inpatient or outpatient treatment for alcohol intoxication or misuse (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.76-2.21, p < 0.001). With age and sex stratification, there was a significant association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions for males aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.73, p = 0.002) and females aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.84, p = 0.023). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25 y or older. One important limitation is that we were unable to fully account for time-varying factors.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions and violent crime arrests varied by age group. The increased risk we found in young people needs validation in other studies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-violent-crime-cohort-study-3", "reader_count"=>50, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266012"], "description"=>"<p>Analyses excluded individuals with only one dispensed prescription. There were too few individuals for separate analyses of fluvoxamine.</p><p><sup><b>ǂ</b></sup>Adjusted model: please see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875#pmed.1001875.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Methods</a> for more details.</p><p>Sensitivity analyses: rates of different adverse outcomes in individuals treated with SSRI medication and other antidepressants compared to non-treatment periods in the same person using stratified Cox regression models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "Cohort Study BackgroundAlthough", "hr", "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "Cox regression analyses", "serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "crime convictions", "ci", "medication", "ssri", "24 y", "crime arrests"], "article_id"=>1544909, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yasmina Molero", "Paul Lichtenstein", "Johan Zetterqvist", "Clara Hellner Gumpert", "Seena Fazel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensitivity_analyses_rates_of_different_adverse_outcomes_in_individuals_treated_with_SSRI_medication_and_other_antidepressants_compared_to_non_treatment_periods_in_the_same_person_using_stratified_Cox_regression_models_/1544909", "title"=>"Sensitivity analyses: rates of different adverse outcomes in individuals treated with SSRI medication and other antidepressants compared to non-treatment periods in the same person using stratified Cox regression models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:00:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266013", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266014", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266015", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266016"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications. Information on all medications was extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, with complete national data on all dispensed medications. Information on violent crime convictions was extracted from the Swedish national crime register. Using within-individual models, there was an overall association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.32, <i>p <</i> 0.001, absolute risk = 1.0%). With age stratification, there was a significant association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions for individuals aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.19–1.73, <i>p <</i> 0.001, absolute risk = 3.0%). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25–34 y (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.95–1.52, <i>p =</i> 0.125, absolute risk = 1.6%), in those aged 35–44 y (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.83–1.35, <i>p =</i> 0.666, absolute risk = 1.2%), or in those aged 45 y or older (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.35, <i>p =</i> 0.594, absolute risk = 0.3%). Associations in those aged 15 to 24 y were also found for violent crime arrests with preliminary investigations (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16–1.41, <i>p <</i> 0.001), non-violent crime convictions (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, <i>p <</i> 0.001), non-violent crime arrests (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.20, <i>p <</i> 0.001), non-fatal injuries from accidents (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.22–1.36, <i>p <</i> 0.001), and emergency inpatient or outpatient treatment for alcohol intoxication or misuse (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.76–2.21, <i>p <</i> 0.001). With age and sex stratification, there was a significant association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions for males aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.13–1.73, <i>p =</i> 0.002) and females aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.08–2.84, <i>p =</i> 0.023). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25 y or older. One important limitation is that we were unable to fully account for time-varying factors.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions and violent crime arrests varied by age group. The increased risk we found in young people needs validation in other studies.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "Cohort Study BackgroundAlthough", "hr", "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "Cox regression analyses", "serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "crime convictions", "ci", "medication", "ssri", "24 y", "crime arrests"], "article_id"=>1544910, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yasmina Molero", "Paul Lichtenstein", "Johan Zetterqvist", "Clara Hellner Gumpert", "Seena Fazel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selective_Serotonin_Reuptake_Inhibitors_and_Violent_Crime_A_Cohort_Study_/1544910", "title"=>"Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:00:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266010"], "description"=>"<p><sup><b>ǂ</b></sup>Including all individuals with dispensed SSRI prescriptions.</p><p>Violent crime convictions in 2006–2009 in individuals treated with SSRI medication as compared to non-medicated individuals, and comparing treatment to non-treatment periods within the same person.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "Cohort Study BackgroundAlthough", "hr", "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "Cox regression analyses", "serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "crime convictions", "ci", "medication", "ssri", "24 y", "crime arrests"], "article_id"=>1544907, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yasmina Molero", "Paul Lichtenstein", "Johan Zetterqvist", "Clara Hellner Gumpert", "Seena Fazel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Violent_crime_convictions_in_2006_8211_2009_in_individuals_treated_with_SSRI_medication_as_compared_to_non_medicated_individuals_and_comparing_treatment_to_non_treatment_periods_within_the_same_person_/1544907", "title"=>"Violent crime convictions in 2006–2009 in individuals treated with SSRI medication as compared to non-medicated individuals, and comparing treatment to non-treatment periods within the same person.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:00:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266011"], "description"=>"<p>Analyses excluded individuals with only one dispensed prescription. There were too few individuals for separate analyses of fluvoxamine.</p><p>n/a, not applicable.</p><p>Violent crime convictions in 2006–2009 in individuals treated with SSRI medication compared to non-treatment periods in the same person stratified by sex, age, dose, and medication type using stratified Cox regression models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "Cohort Study BackgroundAlthough", "hr", "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "Cox regression analyses", "serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "crime convictions", "ci", "medication", "ssri", "24 y", "crime arrests"], "article_id"=>1544908, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yasmina Molero", "Paul Lichtenstein", "Johan Zetterqvist", "Clara Hellner Gumpert", "Seena Fazel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001875.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Violent_crime_convictions_in_2006_8211_2009_in_individuals_treated_with_SSRI_medication_compared_to_non_treatment_periods_in_the_same_person_stratified_by_sex_age_dose_and_medication_type_using_stratified_Cox_regression_models_/1544908", "title"=>"Violent crime convictions in 2006–2009 in individuals treated with SSRI medication compared to non-treatment periods in the same person stratified by sex, age, dose, and medication type using stratified Cox regression models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:00:48"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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