A Systems-Based Analysis of Plasmodium vivax Lifecycle Transcription from Human to Mosquito
Publication Date
April 06, 2010
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Scott J. Westenberger, Colleen M. Mc Clean, Rana Chattopadhyay, Neekesh V. Dharia, et al
Volume
4
Issue
4
Pages
e653
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000653
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386602
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2850316
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20386602
Web of Science
000277240400023
Scopus
77952400810
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/systemsbased-analysis-plasmodium-vivax-lifecycle-transcription-human-mosquito
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A systems-based analysis of Plasmodium vivax lifecycle transcription from human to mosquito", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Scott J.", "last_name"=>"Westenberger", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801645734"}, {"first_name"=>"Colleen M.", "last_name"=>"McClean", "scopus_author_id"=>"36130300000"}, {"first_name"=>"Rana", "last_name"=>"Chattopadhyay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005917208"}, {"first_name"=>"Neekesh V.", "last_name"=>"Dharia", "scopus_author_id"=>"26326229300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jane M.", "last_name"=>"Carlton", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643079100"}, {"first_name"=>"John W.", "last_name"=>"Barnwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006597133"}, {"first_name"=>"William E.", "last_name"=>"Collins", "scopus_author_id"=>"35427631800"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen L.", "last_name"=>"Hoffman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202543944"}, {"first_name"=>"Yingyao", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405367132"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph M.", "last_name"=>"Vinetz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003519222"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth A.", "last_name"=>"Winzeler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003379164"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77952400810", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653", "pui"=>"358837567", "pmid"=>"20386602", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77952400810", "issn"=>"1935-2735", "isbn"=>"1935-2727"}, "id"=>"a5d4ee4e-cae8-3fe4-9600-d261795e2219", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of the world's population is at risk for Plasmodium vivax malaria, a disease that imposes a major public health and economic burden on endemic countries. Because P. vivax produces latent liver forms, eradication of P. vivax malaria is more challenging than it is for P. falciparum. Genetic analysis of P. vivax is exceptionally difficult due to limitations of in vitro culture. To overcome the barriers to traditional molecular biology in P. vivax, we examined parasite transcriptional changes in samples from infected patients and mosquitoes in order to characterize gene function, define regulatory sequences and reveal new potential vaccine candidate genes.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed dramatic changes in transcript levels for various genes at different lifecycle stages, indicating that development is partially regulated through modulation of mRNA levels. Our data show that genes involved in common biological processes or molecular machinery are co-expressed. We identified DNA sequence motifs upstream of co-expressed genes that are conserved across Plasmodium species that are likely binding sites of proteins that regulate stage-specific transcription. Despite their capacity to form hypnozoites we found that P. vivax sporozoites show stage-specific expression of the same genes needed for hepatocyte invasion and liver stage development in other Plasmodium species. We show that many of the predicted exported proteins and members of multigene families show highly coordinated transcription as well.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-quality gene expression data can be readily obtained directly from patient samples and that many of the same uncharacterized genes that are upregulated in different P. vivax lifecycle stages are also upregulated in similar stages in other Plasmodium species. We also provide numerous examples of how systems biology is a powerful method for determining the likely function of genes in pathogens that are neglected due to experimental intractability.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/systemsbased-analysis-plasmodium-vivax-lifecycle-transcription-human-mosquito", "reader_count"=>124, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>76, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>6, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>76}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "Philippines"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425576", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425625", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425690", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425709", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425731", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425754"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Up to 40% of the world's population is at risk for <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> malaria, a disease that imposes a major public health and economic burden on endemic countries. Because <em>P. vivax</em> produces latent liver forms, eradication of <em>P. vivax</em> malaria is more challenging than it is for <em>P. falciparum</em>. Genetic analysis of <em>P. vivax</em> is exceptionally difficult due to limitations of <em>in vitro</em> culture. To overcome the barriers to traditional molecular biology in <em>P. vivax</em>, we examined parasite transcriptional changes in samples from infected patients and mosquitoes in order to characterize gene function, define regulatory sequences and reveal new potential vaccine candidate genes.</p><h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>We observed dramatic changes in transcript levels for various genes at different lifecycle stages, indicating that development is partially regulated through modulation of mRNA levels. Our data show that genes involved in common biological processes or molecular machinery are co-expressed. We identified DNA sequence motifs upstream of co-expressed genes that are conserved across <em>Plasmodium</em> species that are likely binding sites of proteins that regulate stage-specific transcription. Despite their capacity to form hypnozoites we found that <em>P. vivax</em> sporozoites show stage-specific expression of the same genes needed for hepatocyte invasion and liver stage development in other <em>Plasmodium</em> species. We show that many of the predicted exported proteins and members of multigene families show highly coordinated transcription as well.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>We conclude that high-quality gene expression data can be readily obtained directly from patient samples and that many of the same uncharacterized genes that are upregulated in different <em>P. vivax</em> lifecycle stages are also upregulated in similar stages in other <em>Plasmodium</em> species. We also provide numerous examples of how systems biology is a powerful method for determining the likely function of genes in pathogens that are neglected due to experimental intractability.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["systems-based", "lifecycle", "transcription", "mosquito"], "article_id"=>143966, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>33, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Systems_Based_Analysis_of_Plasmodium_vivax_Lifecycle_Transcription_from_Human_to_Mosquito/143966", "title"=>"A Systems-Based Analysis of <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> Lifecycle Transcription from Human to Mosquito", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:06:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856054"], "description"=>"<p>Selected highly expressed representative sporozoite genes. For complete details, see <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd.0000653.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd.0000653.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>. Genes are ranked in descending order by maximum expression value in sporozoites. Sporozoite Conserved Orthologous Transcript (SCOT) genes are previously un-annotated or hypothetical genes upregulated in sporozoites of all <i>Plasmodium</i> species. UVS genes are upregulated only in <i>P. vivax</i> sporozoites, not in <i>P. falciparum</i> sporozoites. PvSpz genes are unique to <i>P. vivax</i>, with no orthologs in <i>P. falciparum</i>. * Indicates genes that were not previously annotated in <i>P. vivax</i>. PVX_122458 and PVX_091306 are new gene ID numbers according to their relative position in the genome and the gene models were based on the PKH_141170 and PKH_091040 gene models, respectively (<a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd.0000653.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Methods S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "sporozoite"], "article_id"=>526499, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Most_highly_expressed_P_vivax_genes_in_the_sporozoite_stage_/526499", "title"=>"Most highly expressed <i>P. vivax</i> genes in the sporozoite stage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:48:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855595"], "description"=>"<p>The expression values of each gene in each sample were normalized by subtracting the average expression value and dividing by the standard deviation across all asexual samples. The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene is not annotated but the syntenic region in <i>P. vivax</i> also shows high expression in sample CM013 (Supplemental <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd-0000653-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>). Gene expression values were normalized by subtracting the average expression value across all samples and dividing by the standard deviation of expression values across all samples. The resulting normalized expression values were colored on a scale ranging from −1 to +2, from black for the lowest, red for the middle, and white for the highest values. The gene ID numbers for glycolysis genes displayed in Figure 3 are: lactate dehydrogenase (PVX_116630, PF13_0141); enolase (PVX_095015, PF10_0155); glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PVX_117321, PF14_0598); fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, putative (PVX_118255, PF14_0425); 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (PVX_091640, PF11_0208); triosephosphate isomerase (PVX_118495, PF14_0378). Gene ID numbers for TCA cycle and aerobic respiration genes are: flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (PVX_111005, PF10_0334); malate:quinone oxidoreductase (PVX_113980, PFF0815w); IRP-like protein (iron regulatory protein-like) (PVX_083005, PF13_0229); fumarate hydratase (PVX_099805, PFI1340w); ATP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase beta subunit (PVX_084960, PF14_0295); 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component (PVX_089325, PF08_0045); dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (PVX_119310, PFC0170c); succinyl-CoA synthetase alpha subunit (PVX_091100, PF11_0097); iron-sulfur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (PVX_123345, PFL0630w); cytochrome C oxidase (PVX_099845, PFI1375w); cytochrome c oxidase copper chaperone (PVX_111430, PF10_0252); cytochrome c oxidase subunit II precursor (PVX_084995, PF14_0288); cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein (heme A: farnesyltransferase) (PVX_080280, PFE0970w); cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein (PVX_084785, PF14_0331); NADH dehydrogenase reaction protein (PVX_119700, PFC0505c).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["metabolic", "genes", "asexual"], "article_id"=>526042, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_metabolic_genes_in_P_vivax_asexual_blood_stage_parasites_/526042", "title"=>"Expression of metabolic genes in <i>P. vivax</i> asexual blood stage parasites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:40:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855687"], "description"=>"<p>Our entire dataset as well as that of Bozdech (TP samples) from three samples of parasites taken into short term culture were combined and subjected to hierarchical clustering. A portion of the dendrogram is expanded. In contrast to other areas of the dendrogram almost all genes are hypotheticals or members of multigene families, may of which are likely to be exported. Gray areas indicate experiments for which no data is available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["members", "multigene"], "article_id"=>526135, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Co_expression_of_members_of_multigene_families_/526135", "title"=>"Co-expression of members of multigene families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:42:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856103"], "description"=>"<p>Sexual stage ID indicates that the <i>P. falciparum</i> or <i>P. yoelii</i> ortholog was part of a group upregulated previously shown to be upregulated during sexual development <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd.0000653-Zhou1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>. N.o.d. indicates that there was no orthologous data and N.c. indicates that orthologous data exists but that the gene was not found in clusters enriched for genes involved. Genes were ranked by p-value computed with the ANOVA method.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strongest", "probability", "differential", "upregulation"], "article_id"=>526545, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_showing_the_strongest_probability_of_differential_upregulation_in_zygotes_/526545", "title"=>"Genes showing the strongest probability of differential upregulation in zygotes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:49:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855328"], "description"=>"<p>Each heat map row represents the common expression pattern shared by its cluster members and these profiles are hierarchically clustered so transcriptionally-related cellular functions are in close vicinity. For nine selected clusters with distinct life cycle expression profiles, the detailed gene-by-gene expression heat maps are shown to illustrate the high correlation within any given cluster. Additional evidences collected for each OPI cluster is summarized in a white-blue heat map. Blue color indicates a favorable piece of evidence, <i>i.e.</i>, either the cluster members form statistically significant protein networks, or the OPI cluster was also found based on previous analyses and reanalyses of the published 54-sample <i>P. falciparum</i> and <i>P. yoelii</i> life cycle data set <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd.0000653-Zhou1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>. The average Pearson correlation coefficient of the expression profiles of <i>P. falciparum</i> orthologs of the cluster members are also color coded, so that blue represents a high positive correlation and gray represents a low negative correlation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "192", "cellular", "clusters", "41"], "article_id"=>525771, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_expression_patterns_of_192_statistically_significant_cellular_function_clusters_across_all_41_P_vivax_samples_/525771", "title"=>"Gene expression patterns of 192 statistically significant cellular function clusters across all 41 <i>P. vivax</i> samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:36:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855818"], "description"=>"<p>A. Figure showing different motifs associated with different lifecycle stage expression. B. Alignment of promoter regions showing the sexual development motif. The motif TGTAnnTACA was discovered in GO:PM16005087 in 92 of the 364 genes promoter regions. While the majority of the 92 genes were hypothetical, the 22 with a predicted function are shown here. Distance is the number of bases upstream of the translational start site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motifs"], "article_id"=>526263, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequence_motifs_associated_with_stage_specific_expression_/526263", "title"=>"Sequence motifs associated with stage specific-expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:44:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856003"], "description"=>"<p>Parasite cell stages present in each patient blood sample at time of collection are listed first. Numbers of cell stages were based on counting microscope 100X objective view fields until researchers observed a total of 200 white blood cells. Filtered sample numbers indicate the parasite cell stages present in 20 fields in each sample following filtration to remove white blood cells and Percoll gradient centrifugation to enrich for asexual stages. All asexual samples contained rings and early trophozoite stages, with no late trophozoites or schizonts. Percoll gradient centrifugation reduced gametocytes in all asexual samples, but a small percentage remained in the sample from which RNA was prepared. Sexual stage sample data indicate parasite cell stages following <i>in vitro</i> cultivation present in 30 fields at the time of RNA sample collection. All samples were collected between November 2007 and July 2008 and were not checked for clonality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asexual"], "article_id"=>526454, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_P_vivax_blood_sample_asexual_profile_and_stage_specificity_/526454", "title"=>"<i>P. vivax</i> blood sample asexual profile and stage specificity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:47:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855479"], "description"=>"<p>Corresponding <i>P. falciparum</i> orthologs of the cluster members may form statistically significant two-hybrid interaction networks. Gene members known to be involved in the cluster are colored in green, predicted ones are colored in pink and those supported by OPI analyses of <i>P. falciparum</i> and <i>P. yoelii</i> life cycle data set are shown in blue. Interaction edges are color coded to reflect whether it is a direct interaction or an indirect interaction, and whether it has literature co-citation support or not. A complete list of genes with cross-validation is given in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653#pntd.0000653.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational biology/genomics", "computational biology/sequence motif analysis", "computational biology/systems biology", "computational biology/transcriptional regulation", "infectious diseases/neglected tropical diseases", "infectious diseases/protozoal infections"], "article_id"=>525919, "categories"=>["Virology", "Physics", "Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Scott J. Westenberger", "Colleen M. McClean", "Rana Chattopadhyay", "Neekesh V. Dharia", "Jane M. Carlton", "John W. Barnwell", "William E. Collins", "Stephen L. Hoffman", "Yingyao Zhou", "Joseph M. Vinetz", "Elizabeth A. Winzeler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000653.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_analysis_/525919", "title"=>"Network analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-06 01:38:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"73", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"65", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

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