The International Limits and Population at Risk of Plasmodium vivax Transmission in 2009
Publication Date
August 03, 2010
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Carlos A. Guerra, Rosalind E. Howes, Anand P. Patil, Peter W. Gething, et al
Volume
4
Issue
8
Pages
e774
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000774
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689816
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914753
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20689816
Web of Science
000281443200006
Scopus
77956544478
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/international-limits-population-risk-plasmodium-vivax-transmission-2009-1
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The international limits and population at risk of Plasmodium vivax transmission in 2009", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Carlos A.", "last_name"=>"Guerra", "scopus_author_id"=>"57128857000"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosalind E.", "last_name"=>"Howes", "scopus_author_id"=>"35760128000"}, {"first_name"=>"Anand P.", "last_name"=>"Patil", "scopus_author_id"=>"26425192800"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter W.", "last_name"=>"Gething", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193559189"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas P.", "last_name"=>"van Boeckel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36471498800"}, {"first_name"=>"William H.", "last_name"=>"Temperley", "scopus_author_id"=>"35622843100"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline W.", "last_name"=>"Kabaria", "scopus_author_id"=>"25653969300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Tatem", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603035928"}, {"first_name"=>"Bui H.", "last_name"=>"Manh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504459988"}, {"first_name"=>"Iqbal R.F.", "last_name"=>"Elyazar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506894785"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Kevin", "last_name"=>"Baird", "scopus_author_id"=>"15921267800"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert W.", "last_name"=>"Snow", "scopus_author_id"=>"56771582900"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon I.", "last_name"=>"Hay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101875313"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1935-2735", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956544478", "pui"=>"359899884", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\n1935-2727 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"77956544478", "pmid"=>"20689816"}, "id"=>"cf3226c8-c9f8-3928-a216-9bfa677ca9e1", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND A research priority for Plasmodium vivax malaria is to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of risk and its relationship with the burden of P. vivax disease in human populations. The aim of the research outlined in this article is to provide a contemporary evidence-based map of the global spatial extent of P. vivax malaria, together with estimates of the human population at risk (PAR) of any level of transmission in 2009. METHODOLOGY The most recent P. vivax case-reporting data that could be obtained for all malaria endemic countries were used to classify risk into three classes: malaria free, unstable (<0.1 case per 1,000 people per annum (p.a.)) and stable (> or =0.1 case per 1,000 p.a.) P. vivax malaria transmission. Risk areas were further constrained using temperature and aridity data based upon their relationship with parasite and vector bionomics. Medical intelligence was used to refine the spatial extent of risk in specific areas where transmission was reported to be absent (e.g., large urban areas and malaria-free islands). The PAR under each level of transmission was then derived by combining the categorical risk map with a high resolution population surface adjusted to 2009. The exclusion of large Duffy negative populations in Africa from the PAR totals was achieved using independent modelling of the gene frequency of this genetic trait. It was estimated that 2.85 billion people were exposed to some risk of P. vivax transmission in 2009, with 57.1% of them living in areas of unstable transmission. The vast majority (2.59 billion, 91.0%) were located in Central and South East (CSE) Asia, whilst the remainder were located in America (0.16 billion, 5.5%) and in the Africa+ region (0.10 billion, 3.5%). Despite evidence of ubiquitous risk of P. vivax infection in Africa, the very high prevalence of Duffy negativity throughout Central and West Africa reduced the PAR estimates substantially. CONCLUSIONS After more than a century of development and control, P. vivax remains more widely distributed than P. falciparum and is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the 2.85 billion people living at risk of infection, the majority of whom are in the tropical belt of CSE Asia. The probability of infection is reduced massively across Africa by the frequency of the Duffy negative trait, but transmission does occur on the continent and is a concern for Duffy positive locals and travellers. The final map provides the spatial limits on which the endemicity of P. vivax transmission can be mapped to support future cartographic-based burden estimations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/international-limits-population-risk-plasmodium-vivax-transmission-2009-1", "reader_count"=>275, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>55, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>60, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>55, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>60, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>120, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>6, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Mathematics"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>60, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>60}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>120}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Pakistan"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>7, "Philippines"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>10, "United Kingdom"=>4, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Nigeria"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>14}

CrossRef

PubMed Central | Further Information

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77956544478"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77956544478?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77956544478&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77956544478&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77956544478", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:77956544478", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-77956544478", "dc:title"=>"The international limits and population at risk of Plasmodium vivax transmission in 2009", "dc:creator"=>"Guerra C.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "prism:volume"=>"4", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2010-08-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"August 2010", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774", "citedby-count"=>"319", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Oxford", "affiliation-city"=>"Oxford", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"20689816", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e774", "source-id"=>"11900154404", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosntds%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pntd.0000774", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"506", "xml_views"=>"20", "html_views"=>"4486"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"135", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"314"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"105", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"105", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"208"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"64", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"111"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"187"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"150"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"185"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"193"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"201"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"214"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"151"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"160"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"304"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"338"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"218"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"316"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"206"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"151"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/417274", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/417323", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/417349", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/417365"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A research priority for <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> malaria is to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of risk and its relationship with the burden of <em>P. vivax</em> disease in human populations. The aim of the research outlined in this article is to provide a contemporary evidence-based map of the global spatial extent of <em>P. vivax</em> malaria, together with estimates of the human population at risk (PAR) of any level of transmission in 2009.</p><h3>Methodology</h3><p>The most recent <em>P. vivax</em> case-reporting data that could be obtained for all malaria endemic countries were used to classify risk into three classes: malaria free, unstable (<0.1 case per 1,000 people per annum (p.a.)) and stable (≥0.1 case per 1,000 p.a.) <em>P. vivax</em> malaria transmission. Risk areas were further constrained using temperature and aridity data based upon their relationship with parasite and vector bionomics. Medical intelligence was used to refine the spatial extent of risk in specific areas where transmission was reported to be absent (e.g., large urban areas and malaria-free islands). The PAR under each level of transmission was then derived by combining the categorical risk map with a high resolution population surface adjusted to 2009. The exclusion of large Duffy negative populations in Africa from the PAR totals was achieved using independent modelling of the gene frequency of this genetic trait. It was estimated that 2.85 billion people were exposed to some risk of <em>P. vivax</em> transmission in 2009, with 57.1% of them living in areas of unstable transmission. The vast majority (2.59 billion, 91.0%) were located in Central and South East (CSE) Asia, whilst the remainder were located in America (0.16 billion, 5.5%) and in the Africa+ region (0.10 billion, 3.5%). Despite evidence of ubiquitous risk of <em>P. vivax</em> infection in Africa, the very high prevalence of Duffy negativity throughout Central and West Africa reduced the PAR estimates substantially.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>After more than a century of development and control, <em>P. vivax</em> remains more widely distributed than <em>P. falciparum</em> and is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the 2.85 billion people living at risk of infection, the majority of whom are in the tropical belt of CSE Asia. The probability of infection is reduced massively across Africa by the frequency of the Duffy negative trait, but transmission does occur on the continent and is a concern for Duffy positive locals and travellers. The final map provides the spatial limits on which the endemicity of <em>P. vivax</em> transmission can be mapped to support future cartographic-based burden estimations.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["limits", "2009"], "article_id"=>142366, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_International_Limits_and_Population_at_Risk_of_Plasmodium_vivax_Transmission_in_2009/142366", "title"=>"The International Limits and Population at Risk of <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> Transmission in 2009", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 00:39:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837970"], "description"=>"<p>*The cited references mostly document imported cases from Africa. Evidence of transmission of <i>P. vivax</i> in Guinea Bissau and Swaziland could not be found in the published literature.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "african"], "article_id"=>508332, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Published_evidence_of_Plasmodium_vivax_malaria_transmission_in_African_countries_/508332", "title"=>"Published evidence of <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> malaria transmission in African countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:18:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837697"], "description"=>"<p>Risk areas are defined as in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774#pntd-0000774-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["overlaid"], "article_id"=>508058, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aridity_layer_overlaid_on_the_Pv_API_and_temperature_layers_/508058", "title"=>"Aridity layer overlaid on the <i>Pv</i>API and temperature layers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:14:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837923"], "description"=>"<p>Regional and global areas and PAR of <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> malaria in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["areas", "par", "malaria"], "article_id"=>508276, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_and_global_areas_and_PAR_of_Plasmodium_vivax_malaria_in_2009_/508276", "title"=>"Regional and global areas and PAR of <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> malaria in 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:17:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837819"], "description"=>"<p>Risk areas are defined as in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774#pntd-0000774-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. The medical intelligence and predicted Duffy negativity layers are overlaid on the <i>P. vivax</i> limits of transmission as defined by the <i>Pv</i>API data and biological mask layers. Areas where Duffy negativity prevalence was estimated as ≥90% are hatched, indicating where PAR estimates were modulated most significantly by the presence of this genetic trait.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "limits", "malaria"], "article_id"=>508180, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_global_spatial_limits_of_Plasmodium_vivax_malaria_transmission_in_2009_/508180", "title"=>"The global spatial limits of <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> malaria transmission in 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:16:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837485"], "description"=>"<p>Transmission was defined as stable (red areas, where <i>Pv</i>API≥0.1 per 1,000 people p.a.), unstable (pink areas, where <i>Pv</i>API<0.1 per 1,000 p.a.) or no risk (grey areas). The boundaries of the 95 countries defined as <i>P. vivax</i> endemic are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "defined"], "article_id"=>507845, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plasmodium_vivax_malaria_risk_defined_by_Pv_API_data_/507845", "title"=>"<i>Plasmodium vivax</i> malaria risk defined by <i>Pv</i>API data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:10:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837339"], "description"=>"<p>The pink rectangle denotes the surface area and populations of <i>Pv</i>MECs, whilst the pink ovoid represents the resulting trimmed surface area and PAR after the exclusion of risk by the various input layers, denoted by the blue rhomboids. Orange rectangles show area and PAR exclusions at each step to illustrate how these were reduced progressively. The sequence in which the exclusion layers are applied does not affect the final PAR estimates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exclusion", "layers"], "article_id"=>507699, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_chart_of_the_various_data_and_exclusion_layers_used_to_derive_the_final_map_/507699", "title"=>"Flow chart of the various data and exclusion layers used to derive the final map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:08:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/837569"], "description"=>"<p>Risk areas are defined as in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774#pntd-0000774-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["refinement", "areas"], "article_id"=>507922, "categories"=>["Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Carlos A. Guerra", "Rosalind E. Howes", "Anand P. Patil", "Peter W. Gething", "Thomas P. Van Boeckel", "William H. Temperley", "Caroline W. Kabaria", "Andrew J. Tatem", "Bui H. Manh", "Iqbal R. F. Elyazar", "J. Kevin Baird", "Robert W. Snow", "Simon I. Hay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000774.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Further_refinement_of_Plasmodium_vivax_transmission_risk_areas_using_the_temperature_layer_of_exclusion_/507922", "title"=>"Further refinement of <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> transmission risk areas using the temperature layer of exclusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-03 02:12:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"67", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"48", "unique-ip"=>"68", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"57", "unique-ip"=>"55", "pdf"=>"36", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"52", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"43", "unique-ip"=>"52", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"42", "unique-ip"=>"50", "pdf"=>"34", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"35", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"30", "unique-ip"=>"37", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"49", "unique-ip"=>"44", "pdf"=>"35", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"25", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"14", "unique-ip"=>"26", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"29", "pdf"=>"29", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"21", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"14", "unique-ip"=>"22", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"33", "unique-ip"=>"32", "pdf"=>"19", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"28", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"31", "unique-ip"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"24", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"25", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"27", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"31", "unique-ip"=>"30", "pdf"=>"13", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"29", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"14", "unique-ip"=>"25", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"31", "unique-ip"=>"26", "pdf"=>"18", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"21", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"21", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"32", "unique-ip"=>"32", "pdf"=>"26", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"25", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"23", "pdf"=>"13", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"25", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"23", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[288, 576, 733, 867, 984, 1087, 1182, 1267, 1346, 1424, 1501, 1577, 1646, 1711, 1778, 1841, 1908, 1970, 2034, 2102, 2162, 2227, 2296, 2359, 2422, 2482, 2550, 2610, 2679, 2747, 2820, 2887, 2955, 3009, 3067, 3130, 3200, 3257, 3322, 3379, 3443, 3507, 3571, 3632, 3683, 3753, 3822, 3877]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[290, 557, 702, 824, 930, 1032, 1119, 1197, 1276, 1347, 1410, 1477, 1539, 1603, 1678, 1741, 1801, 1866, 1930, 1988, 2060, 2117, 2185, 2239, 2300, 2358, 2429, 2486, 2548, 2613, 2693, 2758, 2824, 2891, 2950, 3019, 3093, 3163, 3224, 3284, 3355, 3421, 3486, 3552, 3622, 3684, 3749, 3799, 3859]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Parasitology", "average_usage"=>[277, 573, 714, 825, 931, 1032, 1126, 1207, 1278, 1351, 1422, 1495, 1558, 1626, 1696, 1747, 1811, 1888, 1954, 2005, 2095, 2149, 2214, 2277, 2318, 2389, 2436, 2493, 2567, 2666, 2727, 2784, 2871, 2936, 2984, 3058, 3116, 3178, 3223, 3295, 3360, 3423, 3504, 3579, 3645, 3716, 3757, 3826, 3873]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[300, 565, 713, 834, 949, 1067, 1154, 1249, 1325, 1400, 1475, 1554, 1619, 1696, 1757, 1821, 1905, 1968, 2034, 2088, 2147, 2218, 2289, 2365, 2434, 2491, 2560, 2618, 2682, 2777, 2842, 2910, 2977, 3035, 3107, 3178, 3250, 3313, 3383, 3445, 3512, 3569, 3631, 3683, 3748, 3818, 3882, 3942]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[286, 534, 665, 777, 906, 1009, 1091, 1169, 1247, 1314, 1379, 1434, 1509, 1592, 1637, 1729, 1801, 1855, 1922, 1993, 2052, 2098, 2164, 2215, 2277, 2335, 2413, 2485, 2553, 2606, 2699, 2756, 2832, 2892, 2971, 3035, 3093, 3146, 3196, 3251, 3357, 3436, 3472, 3529, 3623, 3679, 3727, 3795, 3866]}]}

F1000Prime | Further Information

Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts