Leishmaniasis: Middle East and North Africa Research and Development Priorities
Publication Date
July 26, 2011
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Mary Ann Mc Dowell, Sima Rafati, Marcelo Ramalho Ortigao & Afif Ben Salah
Volume
5
Issue
7
Pages
e1219
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001219
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001219
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21814585
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144177
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21814585
Web of Science
000293166300007
Scopus
79960951473
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/leishmaniasis-middle-east-north-africa-research-development-priorities-1
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Leishmaniasis: Middle East and North Africa Research and Development Priorities", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mary Ann", "last_name"=>"McDowell"}, {"first_name"=>"Sima", "last_name"=>"Rafati"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcelo", "last_name"=>"Ramalho-Ortigao"}, {"first_name"=>"Afif", "last_name"=>"Ben Salah"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1935-2735", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0001219", "pmid"=>"21814585"}, "id"=>"6875f209-7a43-3808-9739-2d2f35f5f0ee", "abstract"=>"The article focuses on the research and development of tropical disease leishmaniasis in the Middle East and North Africa. It defines leishmaniasis as a complex, multi-spectrum, sand fly-transmitted disease and is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world, contributing to about 2 million disability-adjusted life years. It notes that host genetics or immune responses, different sand fly vector species, and the presence of Leishmania spp. hybrids have influenced the clinical outcome of leishmania infections.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/leishmaniasis-middle-east-north-africa-research-development-priorities-1", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752028"], "description"=>"<p>Although at least 20 <i>Leishmania spp.</i> infect humans worldwide, the primary epidemiologically relevant species in the MENA region are <i>L. major</i>, <i>L. tropica</i>, <i>L. infantum</i>, and <i>L. donovani</i>, transmitted by approximately 25 different <i>Phlebotomus spp</i>. Etiological agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in MENA include <i>L. donovani</i>, <i>L. infantum</i>, and occasionally <i>L. tropica</i>. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by <i>L. major</i>, <i>L. tropica</i>, and <i>L. infantum</i> differ slightly in lesion presentation depending on the species. As with vector species, a variety of animal hosts have been implicated as reservoirs in the transmission of zoonotic leishmaniasis, including rodents, hyraxes, and canids. For CL caused by <i>L. major</i>, the primary cycle is zoonotic between <i>P. papatasi</i> (shown) and <i>Psammoys</i> (shown) and <i>Meriones</i> rodents. Although hyraxes have been implicated as a reservoir host for <i>L. tropica</i>, transmission is thought to be primarily anthroponotic as is the VL agent, <i>L. donovani</i>. Mediterranean VL caused by <i>L. infantum</i> is typically zoonotic where candids are the primary reservoir and man is an accidental host; however, anthroponitic cycles also have been characterized. Regardless of species or clinical manifestation, all <i>Leishmania</i> species infecting humans are transmitted by the bite of an infected sand fly. During a blood meal, metacyclic promastigotes are released by the sand fly and enter the skin of the vertebrate host. <i>Leishmania</i> parasites infect cells of the myeloid lineage, including neutrophils, followed by macrophages and dendritic cells (shown). These parasites reside within a phagolysosome where they differentiate into a dividing, aflagellated amasitogotes. Sand flies take up parasites when feeding on an infected host. Infected host cells are lysed and amastigotes differentiate into flagellated procyclic promastigotes that attach to the midgut of the sand fly vector. Subsequent development and migration towards the anterior end of the sand fly completes the cycle. Photo Credits: <i>P. papatasi</i> courtesy of Tim Gathany, Center for Disease Control Photo Services; <i>Psammomys obesus</i> from <a href=\"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Psammomys_obesus_01.jpg\" target=\"_blank\">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Psammomys_obesus_01.jpg</a>; rock hyrax from <a href=\"http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/biome_main.htm\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/biome_main.htm</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["science policy"], "article_id"=>422403, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mary Ann McDowell", "Sima Rafati", "Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão", "Afif Ben Salah"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001219.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MENA_leishmaniasis_/422403", "title"=>"MENA leishmaniasis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:20:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752126"], "description"=>"<p>Leishmaniasis: Road to Translation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["science policy"], "article_id"=>422499, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mary Ann McDowell", "Sima Rafati", "Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão", "Afif Ben Salah"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001219.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leishmaniasis_Road_to_Translation_/422499", "title"=>"Leishmaniasis: Road to Translation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:20:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751933"], "description"=>"<p>Policy recommendations for the translation of laboratory discoveries into field applications for the control of leishmanisis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recommendations", "discoveries", "applications"], "article_id"=>422307, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mary Ann McDowell", "Sima Rafati", "Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão", "Afif Ben Salah"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001219.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Policy_recommendations_for_the_translation_of_laboratory_discoveries_into_field_applications_for_the_control_of_leishmanisis_/422307", "title"=>"Policy recommendations for the translation of laboratory discoveries into field applications for the control of leishmanisis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:19:33"}
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PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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