Schistosoma mansoni Enhances Host Susceptibility to Mucosal but Not Intravenous Challenge by R5 Clade C SHIV
Publication Date
August 02, 2011
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa, Girish Hemashettar, Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan, Amma A. Semenya, et al
Volume
5
Issue
8
Pages
e1270
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001270
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829749
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3149020
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21829749
Web of Science
000294479800025
Scopus
80052399131
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/schistosoma-mansoni-enhances-host-susceptibility-mucosal-not-intravenous-challenge-r5-clade-c-shiv
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Schistosoma mansoni enhances host susceptibility to mucosal but not intravenous challenge by R5 clade C SHIV", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nagadenahalli B.", "last_name"=>"Siddappa", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506421639"}, {"first_name"=>"Girish", "last_name"=>"Hemashettar", "scopus_author_id"=>"35321051200"}, {"first_name"=>"Vivekanandan", "last_name"=>"Shanmuganathan", "scopus_author_id"=>"52264534400"}, {"first_name"=>"Amma A.", "last_name"=>"Semenya", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504583050"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth D.", "last_name"=>"Sweeney", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196787472"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine S.", "last_name"=>"Paul", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202727792"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra J.", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"35292355600"}, {"first_name"=>"W. Evan", "last_name"=>"Secor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004063907"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth M.", "last_name"=>"Ruprecht", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005394971"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21829749", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270", "sgr"=>"80052399131", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052399131", "issn"=>"19352727", "pui"=>"362489718"}, "id"=>"cdff9186-dd0c-38db-8ad4-41639aad8cbd", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND The high prevalence of HIV-1/AIDS in areas endemic for schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections has led to the hypothesis that parasites increase host susceptibility to immunodeficiency virus infection. We previously showed that rhesus macaques (RM) with active schistosomiasis were significantly more likely to become systemically infected after intrarectal (i.r.) exposure to an R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C) than were parasite-free controls. However, we could not address whether this was due to systemic or mucosal effects. If systemic immunoactivation resulted in increased susceptibility to SHIV-C acquisition, a similarly large difference in host susceptibility would be seen after intravenous (i.v.) SHIV-C challenge. Conversely, if increased host susceptibility was due to parasite-induced immunoactivation at the mucosal level, i.v. SHIV-C challenge would not result in significant differences between parasitized and parasite-free monkeys. METHODS AND FINDINGS We enrolled two groups of RM and infected one group with Schistosoma mansoni; the other group was left parasite-free. Both groups were challenged i.v. with decreasing doses of SHIV-C. No statistically significant differences in 50% animal infectious doses (AID(50)) or peak viremia were seen between the two groups. These data strongly contrast the earlier i.r. SHIV-C challenge (using the same virus stock) in the presence/absence of parasites, where we noted a 17-fold difference in AID(50) and one log higher peak viremia in parasitized monkeys (P<0.001 for both). The lack of significant differences after the i.v. challenge implies that the increased host susceptibility is predominantly due to parasite-mediated mucosal upregulation of virus replication and spread, rather than systemic effects. CONCLUSIONS The major impact of schistosome-induced increased host susceptibility is at the mucosal level. Given that >90% of all new HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired through mucosal contact, parasitic infections that inflame mucosae may play an important role in the spread of HIV-1.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/schistosoma-mansoni-enhances-host-susceptibility-mucosal-not-intravenous-challenge-r5-clade-c-shiv", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750096"], "description"=>"*<p>defined by plasma viral RNA load >10<sup>4</sup> copies/ml.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infectivity", "shiv-c", "routes", "chinese-origin", "rhesus"], "article_id"=>420464, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa", "Girish Hemashettar", "Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan", "Amma A. Semenya", "Elizabeth D. Sweeney", "Katherine S. Paul", "Sandra J. Lee", "W. Evan Secor", "Ruth M. Ruprecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_infectivity_of_different_SHIV_C_challenge_routes_in_Chinese_origin_rhesus_monkeys_/420464", "title"=>"Relative infectivity of different SHIV-C challenge routes in Chinese-origin rhesus monkeys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:06:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750020"], "description"=>"<p>(A & B) viral RNA loads were compared between parasite-free and <i>S. mansoni</i>-infected RM during acute infection. During the first four weeks post-challenge, plasma samples were analyzed weekly for viral RNA loads. The horizontal dotted line indicates the lower limit of detection in the PCR assay (<50 viral RNA copies/ml) <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270#pntd.0001270-Cline1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270#pntd.0001270-HofmannLehmann1\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>. *, animals were first exposed to higher dilution of the virus as indicated in the figure. If systemic infection failed to occur after the initial dose, the monkeys were re-exposed to a lower virus dilution, which proved to be infective.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rna", "loads", "parasite-free", "rm", "shiv-c"], "article_id"=>420380, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa", "Girish Hemashettar", "Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan", "Amma A. Semenya", "Elizabeth D. Sweeney", "Katherine S. Paul", "Sandra J. Lee", "W. Evan Secor", "Ruth M. Ruprecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viral_RNA_loads_of_parasite_free_and_S_mansoni_infected_RM_after_SHIV_C_challenge_/420380", "title"=>"Viral RNA loads of parasite-free and <i>S. mansoni</i>-infected RM after SHIV-C challenge.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:06:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749897"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Egg counts (per gram feces) in stool samples collected from the <i>S. mansoni</i>-infected animals. Data represent the average of three consecutive values ± SEM. Percentage of eosinophils was plotted as a function of time (± SEM). (B) Ratios of IL-4 mRNA expression relative to the expression of the housekeeping gene (GAPDH) in PBMC before exposure to <i>S. mansoni</i> (week 0) and at week 7 (before exposure to SHIV-C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chinese-origin", "rm", "il-4", "mrna"], "article_id"=>420254, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa", "Girish Hemashettar", "Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan", "Amma A. Semenya", "Elizabeth D. Sweeney", "Katherine S. Paul", "Sandra J. Lee", "W. Evan Secor", "Ruth M. Ruprecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Infection_of_Chinese_origin_RM_with_S_mansoni_and_IL_4_mRNA_expression_levels_/420254", "title"=>"Infection of Chinese-origin RM with <i>S. mansoni</i> and IL-4 mRNA expression levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:05:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749960"], "description"=>"<p>Peak viral RNA loads were compared between parasite-free and <i>S. mansoni</i>-infected RM in i.v and i.r. challenge experiments. *, <i>P</i>  =  0.004 was statistically significant after the Bonferroni correction (since it was below 0.017). **, previously published data were used for comparison <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270#pntd.0001270-Chenine2\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>; those studies had been performed with the identical stock of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 used here.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viral", "rna"], "article_id"=>420324, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa", "Girish Hemashettar", "Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan", "Amma A. Semenya", "Elizabeth D. Sweeney", "Katherine S. Paul", "Sandra J. Lee", "W. Evan Secor", "Ruth M. Ruprecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_viral_RNA_loads_/420324", "title"=>"Peak viral RNA loads.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:06:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750134"], "description"=>"a<p>These animals were first exposed to a 1∶250,000 and 1∶500,000 dilution of the virus. When infection failed to occur after the initial dose, the monkeys were re-exposed to a 1∶25,000 dilution, which proved to be infective.</p>b<p>Infection in these animals peaked at week 3.</p>c<p>These animals were first exposed to 1∶1,000,000, 1∶1,500,000 and 1∶5,000,000 dilution of the virus. After infection failed to occur, the monkeys were re-exposed to 1∶100,000 and 1∶250,000 dilution of virus, which was infective.</p><p>Although we initially enrolled 8 RM into the two groups, 1 RM was lost during quarantine due to unrelated causes. The prior i.r. study challenge study also used 8 RM per group <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270#pntd.0001270-Humbert1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["titration"], "article_id"=>420508, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa", "Girish Hemashettar", "Vivekanandan Shanmuganathan", "Amma A. Semenya", "Elizabeth D. Sweeney", "Katherine S. Paul", "Sandra J. Lee", "W. Evan Secor", "Ruth M. Ruprecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001270.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intravenous_titration_of_SHIV_1157ipd3N4_/420508", "title"=>"Intravenous titration of SHIV-1157ipd3N4.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:07:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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