The Genetic and Molecular Basis of O-Antigenic Diversity in Burkholderia pseudomallei Lipopolysaccharide
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{"title"=>"The genetic and molecular basis of O-antigenic diversity in Burkholderia pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Apichai", "last_name"=>"Tuanyok", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506832663"}, {"first_name"=>"Joshua K.", "last_name"=>"Stone", "scopus_author_id"=>"54951633500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Mayo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202350361"}, {"first_name"=>"Mirjam", "last_name"=>"Kaestli", "scopus_author_id"=>"14066126400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey", "last_name"=>"Gruendike", "scopus_author_id"=>"35336374200"}, {"first_name"=>"Shalamar", "last_name"=>"Georgia", "scopus_author_id"=>"16238528600"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephanie", "last_name"=>"Warrington", "scopus_author_id"=>"54682554400"}, {"first_name"=>"Travis", "last_name"=>"Mullins", "scopus_author_id"=>"54951678600"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Allender", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602192217"}, {"first_name"=>"David M.", "last_name"=>"Wagner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401982601"}, {"first_name"=>"Narisara", "last_name"=>"Chantratita", "scopus_author_id"=>"11439747400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sharon J.", "last_name"=>"Peacock", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006230636"}, {"first_name"=>"Bart J.", "last_name"=>"Currie", "scopus_author_id"=>"14520829200"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Keim", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007034048"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\n1935-2727 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84856569017", "pui"=>"364192332", "pmid"=>"22235357", "issn"=>"19352727", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84856569017", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453"}, "id"=>"d6f50d74-72f3-393e-b504-436fdcd0b461", "abstract"=>"Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the most important virulence and antigenic components of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. LPS diversity in B. pseudomallei has been described as typical, atypical or rough, based upon banding patterns on SDS-PAGE. Here, we studied the genetic and molecular basis of these phenotypic differences. Bioinformatics was used to determine the diversity of genes known or predicted to be involved in biosynthesis of the O-antigenic moiety of LPS in B. pseudomallei and its near-relative species. Multiplex-PCR assays were developed to target diversity of the O-antigen biosynthesis gene patterns or LPS genotypes in B. pseudomallei populations. We found that the typical LPS genotype (LPS genotype A) was highly prevalent in strains from Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia, whereas the atypical LPS genotype (LPS genotype B) was most often detected in Australian strains (~13.8%). In addition, we report a novel LPS ladder pattern, a derivative of the atypical LPS phenotype, associated with an uncommon O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster that is found in only a small B. pseudomallei sub-population. This new LPS group was designated as genotype B2. We also report natural mutations in the O-antigen biosynthesis genes that potentially cause the rough LPS phenotype. We postulate that the diversity of LPS may correlate with differential immunopathogenicity and virulence among B. pseudomallei strains.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetic-molecular-basis-oantigenic-diversity-burkholderia-pseudomallei-lipopolysaccharide", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Thailand"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354096", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354230", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354306"], "description"=>"<div><p>Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the most important virulence and antigenic components of <em>Burkholderia pseudomallei</em>, the causative agent of melioidosis. LPS diversity in <em>B. pseudomallei</em> has been described as typical, atypical or rough, based upon banding patterns on SDS-PAGE. Here, we studied the genetic and molecular basis of these phenotypic differences. Bioinformatics was used to determine the diversity of genes known or predicted to be involved in biosynthesis of the O-antigenic moiety of LPS in <em>B. pseudomallei</em> and its near-relative species. Multiplex-PCR assays were developed to target diversity of the O-antigen biosynthesis gene patterns or LPS genotypes in <em>B. pseudomallei</em> populations. We found that the typical LPS genotype (LPS genotype A) was highly prevalent in strains from Thailand and other countries in Southeast Asia, whereas the atypical LPS genotype (LPS genotype B) was most often detected in Australian strains (∼13.8%). In addition, we report a novel LPS ladder pattern, a derivative of the atypical LPS phenotype, associated with an uncommon O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster that is found in only a small <em>B. pseudomallei</em> sub-population. This new LPS group was designated as genotype B2. We also report natural mutations in the O-antigen biosynthesis genes that potentially cause the rough LPS phenotype. We postulate that the diversity of LPS may correlate with differential immunopathogenicity and virulence among <em>B. pseudomallei</em> strains.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["molecular", "o-antigenic", "lipopolysaccharide"], "article_id"=>129980, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Genetic_and_Molecular_Basis_of_O_Antigenic_Diversity_in_Burkholderia_pseudomallei_Lipopolysaccharide/129980", "title"=>"The Genetic and Molecular Basis of O-Antigenic Diversity in <em>Burkholderia pseudomallei</em> Lipopolysaccharide", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:46:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/695937"], "description"=>"<p>The typical LPS ladder pattern (i.e serotype A) was associated with O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster in K96243 (top) or LPS genotype A, whereas the atypical LPS ladder pattern (serotype B) found in approximately 13.8% of Australian strains was believed to be associated with a different O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster or LPS genotype B observed in strain 576 (middle). Strain MSHR840 was identified as a variant serotype B strain, designated as LPS genotype B2, because many of its O-antigen biosynthesis genes (bottom) were similar to those found in strain 576. We note that genes encoding for key components of the O-antigens (e.g., <i>wbiGHI</i>, and <i>rmlBAC</i>), were conserved across these 3 different clusters. <b>Note</b>: * Target genes selected for PCR assays to represent each LPS genotype; GenBank accession number and nucleotide coordinates are indicated for each genome used in the analysis; gene <i>apaH</i> is shown in this figure as a flanking gene that is not involved in the O-antigen biosynthesis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biosynthesis", "clusters", "o-antigen", "moiety", "lps"], "article_id"=>366334, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diversity_of_three_biosynthesis_gene_clusters_for_the_O_antigen_moiety_of_the_LPS_in_B_pseudomallei_/366334", "title"=>"Diversity of three biosynthesis gene clusters for the O-antigen moiety of the LPS in <i>B. pseudomallei</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696025"], "description"=>"<p>Multiplex SYBR-Green PCR assays were developed to target the presence of genes: <i>wbiE</i>, BUC_3396, and BURP840_LPSb16, which were the representatives of LPS genotypes A, B, and B2, respectively. PCR amplicons from these 3 gene targets were differentiated by melting dissociation (A); or sizing (B); lanes 1, 2, 3, and 4 are PCR products from strains K96243, 576, MSHR840, and non-DNA template control (NTC), respectively; and L, 1 kb-plus DNA ladder. We note that LPS genotype A was the most common LPS genotype, whereas a majority of the LPS genotype B was found in strains from Australia (approx.13.8%). Genotype B2 was found in strains from Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) only (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies", "lps", "genotypes"], "article_id"=>366425, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genotyping_scheme_and_frequencies_of_three_different_LPS_genotypes_identified_in_B_pseudomallei_populations_/366425", "title"=>"Genotyping scheme and frequencies of three different LPS genotypes identified in <i>B. pseudomallei</i> populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:47:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696109"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A is silver strained SDS-PAGE of four different LPS phenotypes; panels B and C are immunoblotting analysis of the same LPS samples using sera from melioidosis patients with known infection by LPS genotype A, or B strains, respectively. Lanes 1–4 are typical (type A), atypical (type B), a novel atypical (type B variant or type B2), and rough LPS types, respectively; lane L is a pre-stained protein standard ladder. We note that the typical LPS was specifically seroreactive to the antibody from patient who was infected by LPS genotype A strain, whereas, the atypical LPS types (lanes 2 and 3) were seroreactive with the antibody from the LPS genotype B infected patient only. Rough LPS or no-banding LPS appearance (lane 4) was seronegative to both sera.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lps", "banding", "patterns", "serological"], "article_id"=>366505, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diversity_of_B_pseudomallei_LPS_banding_patterns_and_their_serological_specificity_/366505", "title"=>"Diversity of <i>B. pseudomallei</i> LPS banding patterns and their serological specificity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:48:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696234"], "description"=>"<p>These strains were collected chronologically from a single chronic lung patient who had severe bronchiectasis associated with melioidosis over almost 8 years. Panel A is the chronological order of these <i>B. pseudomallei</i> strains. Panel B demonstrates an extra base (“G”) that was found to cause frame-shift mutation in <i>wbiI</i> gene of all <i>B. pseudomallei</i> strains collected from day 550 onward. Panel C demonstrates the insertion of two extra bases “TC” in BPSL1936, the <i>oacA</i> homolog, in the same strains that had the <i>wbiI</i> mutation. Note: the <i>wbiI</i> gene of <i>B. pseudomallei</i> K96243 and <i>oacA</i> gene of <i>B. thailandensis</i> E264 <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453#pntd.0001453-Brett1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> were used as comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutations", "genes", "clonal"], "article_id"=>366633, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Point_mutations_found_in_wbiI_and_oacA_genes_in_clonal_B_pseudomallei_strains_/366633", "title"=>"Point mutations found in <i>wbiI</i> and <i>oacA</i> genes in clonal <i>B. pseudomallei</i> strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:50:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696384"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A demonstrates LPS phenotypes based upon SDS-PAGE analysis of select chronic lung strains; lanes 1–9, LPS samples from the chronic lung strains MSHR1043, MSHR1048, MSHR1218, MSHR1288, MSHR1290, MSHR1418, MSHR1459, MSHR1655, and MSHR3042, respectively; L, protein standard ladder. Panel B shows differential serum susceptibility in four select chronic lung <i>B. pseudomallei</i> strains grown in 30% of normal human serum (NHS); a well-known serum resistant <i>B. pseudomallei</i> strain 1026b, and a laboratory <i>E. coli</i> strain HB101 were used as the positive and negative controls in this study, respectively. We note that strains MSHR1655 and MSHR3042, the rough LPS strains that had mutation in their <i>wbiI</i> genes were unable to multiply in the presence of 30% NHS, whereas, the typical LPS strains MSHR1043 and MSHR1048 from the same patient were able to utilize the NHS as nutrients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lps", "phenotypes", "serum", "susceptibility"], "article_id"=>366777, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differential_LPS_phenotypes_and_serum_susceptibility_of_the_chronic_lung_strains_/366777", "title"=>"Differential LPS phenotypes and serum susceptibility of the chronic lung strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:52:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696481"], "description"=>"<p>LPS samples from <i>B. pseudomallei</i> K96243 and 112, <i>B. mallei</i> ATCC23344, and <i>B. thailandensis</i> E264 and TXDOH, Lanes 1–5, respectively, hybridized against serotype A patient's serum (panel A), and <i>B. mallei</i> LPS-specific mAb 3D11 (panel B). As predicted, LPS samples from <i>B. pseudomallei</i> 112 (lane 2) and <i>B. thailandensis</i> TXDOH (lane 5) were strongly positive to the mAb 3D11 due to the mutation of their <i>oacA</i> genes. Lane L is a pre-stained protein standard ladder.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutation", "112", "txdoh", "revealed", "immunoblot"], "article_id"=>366874, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phenotypic_effects_of_the_oacA_mutation_in_B_pseudomallei_112_and_B_thailandensis_TXDOH_revealed_by_immunoblot_analysis_/366874", "title"=>"Phenotypic effects of the <i>oacA</i> mutation in <i>B. pseudomallei</i> 112 and <i>B. thailandensis</i> TXDOH revealed by immunoblot analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:54:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696558"], "description"=>"<p>Note: LPS genotypes and mutations were identified in the main O-antigen biosynthesis gene locus and the <i>oacA</i> homologs. Frame-shifted mutations of the O-antigen biosynthesis genes were found in their <i>wbiI</i>(*), <i>wbiF</i>(<sup>†</sup>),<i>wbiE</i> (<sup>‡</sup>), and <i>wbiD</i> (<sup>ψ</sup>) genes. We did not test the effects of <i>wbiF</i> mutant in <i>B. pseudomallei</i> 14, and <i>wbiE</i> mutant in <i>B. pseudomallei</i> B7210, due to unavailability of live bacterial cultures. The listed GenBank accession numbers are associated with the LPS genotype identification, not for <i>oacA</i> analysis. Details of the <i>oacA</i> mutations are demonstrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453#pntd.0001453.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genotype", "mutations"], "article_id"=>366956, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Apichai Tuanyok", "Joshua K. Stone", "Mark Mayo", "Mirjam Kaestli", "Jeffrey Gruendike", "Shalamar Georgia", "Stephanie Warrington", "Travis Mullins", "Christopher J. Allender", "David M. Wagner", "Narisara Chantratita", "Sharon J. Peacock", "Bart J. Currie", "Paul Keim"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001453.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LPS_genotype_identification_and_mutations_in_the_four_closely_related_Burkholderia_species_/366956", "title"=>"LPS genotype identification and mutations in the four closely related <i>Burkholderia</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:55:56"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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