Trachoma: Protective and Pathogenic Ocular Immune Responses to Chlamydia trachomatis
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{"title"=>"Trachoma: Protective and Pathogenic Ocular Immune Responses to Chlamydia trachomatis", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Victor H.", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36026512400"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin J.", "last_name"=>"Holland", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201661621"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew J.", "last_name"=>"Burton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202920109"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23457650", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020", "sgr"=>"84874775158", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\n1935-2727 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874775158", "issn"=>"19352735", "pui"=>"368490602"}, "id"=>"7cf7f872-26e8-334f-8417-c7dc44b29fe6", "abstract"=>"Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood. The immune response to Ct provides only partial protection against re-infection, which can be frequent. Moreover, the immune response is central to the development of scarring pathology, leading to loss of vision. Here we review the current literature on both protective and pathological immune responses in trachoma. The resolution of Ct infection in animal models is IFNγ-dependent, involving Th1 cells, but whether this is the case in human ocular infection still needs to be confirmed. An increasing number of studies indicate that innate immune responses arising from the epithelium and other innate immune cells, along with changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity, are important in the development of tissue damage and scarring. Current trachoma control measures, which are centred on repeated mass antibiotic treatment of populations, are logistically challenging and have the potential to drive antimicrobial resistance. A trachoma vaccine would offer significant advantages. However, limited understanding of the mechanisms of both protective immunity and immunopathology to Ct remain barriers to vaccine development.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/trachoma-protective-pathogenic-ocular-immune-responses-chlamydia-trachomatis", "reader_count"=>71, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>8, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/485781"], "description"=>"<div><p>Trachoma, caused by <em>Chlamydia trachomatis</em> (<em>Ct</em>), is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood. The immune response to <em>Ct</em> provides only partial protection against re-infection, which can be frequent. Moreover, the immune response is central to the development of scarring pathology, leading to loss of vision. Here we review the current literature on both protective and pathological immune responses in trachoma. The resolution of <em>Ct</em> infection in animal models is IFNγ-dependent, involving Th1 cells, but whether this is the case in human ocular infection still needs to be confirmed. An increasing number of studies indicate that innate immune responses arising from the epithelium and other innate immune cells, along with changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity, are important in the development of tissue damage and scarring. Current trachoma control measures, which are centred on repeated mass antibiotic treatment of populations, are logistically challenging and have the potential to drive antimicrobial resistance. A trachoma vaccine would offer significant advantages. However, limited understanding of the mechanisms of both protective immunity and immunopathology to <em>Ct</em> remain barriers to vaccine development.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogenic", "ocular", "responses"], "article_id"=>157006, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Victor H. Hu", "Martin J. Holland", "Matthew J. Burton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Trachoma_Protective_and_Pathogenic_Ocular_Immune_Responses_to_Chlamydia_trachomatis_/157006", "title"=>"Trachoma: Protective and Pathogenic Ocular Immune Responses to <em>Chlamydia trachomatis</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 01:56:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/488079"], "description"=>"<p>N, normal; TF, Trachomatous inflammation–follicular; TI, Trachomatous inflammation–intense; TS, trachomatous scarring; TT, trachomatous trichiasis; CO, corneal opacity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grades"], "article_id"=>158607, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Victor H. Hu", "Martin J. Holland", "Matthew J. Burton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_features_and_grades_of_trachoma_/158607", "title"=>"Clinical features and grades of trachoma.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/488202"], "description"=>"<p>A subepithelial follicle is seen. Kindly provided by Professor A. El-Asrar, King Saud University.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conjunctiva"], "article_id"=>158730, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Victor H. Hu", "Martin J. Holland", "Matthew J. Burton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_section_of_the_conjunctiva_from_a_child_with_active_trachoma_/158730", "title"=>"Histological section of the conjunctiva from a child with active trachoma.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:25:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/488347"], "description"=>"<p>Schemas of normal conjunctiva, active trachomatous disease, and trachomatous scarring.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trachomatous"], "article_id"=>158877, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Victor H. Hu", "Martin J. Holland", "Matthew J. Burton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schemas_of_normal_conjunctiva_active_trachomatous_disease_and_trachomatous_scarring_/158877", "title"=>"Schemas of normal conjunctiva, active trachomatous disease, and trachomatous scarring.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:27:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/488525"], "description"=>"<p>(Top) Healthy. (Middle and bottom) Scarred, note disruption of the epithelial and connective tissue morphology, and an increased inflammatory cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sections", "conjunctiva", "trachomatous"], "article_id"=>159047, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Victor H. Hu", "Martin J. Holland", "Matthew J. Burton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_sections_of_healthy_conjunctiva_and_trachomatous_scarring_/159047", "title"=>"Histological sections of healthy conjunctiva and trachomatous scarring.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:30:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/488627"], "description"=>"a<p>Including 82 people with no scarring at baseline.</p>b<p>Estimated incidence rates based on age-specific prevalence of scarring, trichiasis, and corneal opacity among women.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "progression", "rates", "trachomatous"], "article_id"=>159151, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Victor H. Hu", "Martin J. Holland", "Matthew J. Burton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_incidence_and_progression_rates_of_trachomatous_scarring_/159151", "title"=>"Summary of the incidence and progression rates of trachomatous scarring.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:32:31"}

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Relative Metric

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