National Borders Effectively Halt the Spread of Rabies: The Current Rabies Epidemic in China Is Dislocated from Cases in Neighboring Countries
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{"title"=>"National Borders Effectively Halt the Spread of Rabies: The Current Rabies Epidemic in China Is Dislocated from Cases in Neighboring Countries", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zhenyang", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55308471900"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoyan", "last_name"=>"Tao", "scopus_author_id"=>"26632425800"}, {"first_name"=>"Cuiping", "last_name"=>"Yin", "scopus_author_id"=>"15057327800"}, {"first_name"=>"Na", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"55308655000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jinning", "last_name"=>"Yu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55307487500"}, {"first_name"=>"Hao", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57141304900"}, {"first_name"=>"Haizhou", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"16425918800"}, {"first_name"=>"Wei", "last_name"=>"Fang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55307538200"}, {"first_name"=>"James", "last_name"=>"Adams", "scopus_author_id"=>"55470147000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200016919"}, {"first_name"=>"Guodong", "last_name"=>"Liang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202631120"}, {"first_name"=>"Qing", "last_name"=>"Tang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201632013"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Rayner", "scopus_author_id"=>"16550833000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368294240", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873515661", "pmid"=>"23383359", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039", "sgr"=>"84873515661", "issn"=>"19352735"}, "id"=>"eb8891ed-9026-3de4-9e4e-385e0106211b", "abstract"=>"China has seen a massive resurgence of rabies cases in the last 15 years with more than 25,000 human fatalities. Initial cases were reported in the southwest but are now reported in almost every province. There have been several phylogenetic investigations into the origin and spread of the virus within China but few reports investigating the impact of the epidemic on neighboring countries. We therefore collected nucleoprotein sequences from China and South East Asia and investigated their phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationship. Our results indicate that within South East Asia, isolates mainly cluster according to their geographic origin. We found evidence of sporadic exchange of strains between neighboring countries, but it appears that the major strain responsible for the current Chinese epidemic has not been exported. This suggests that national geographical boundaries and border controls are effective at halting the spread of rabies from China into adjacent regions. We further investigated the geographic structure of Chinese sequences and found that the current epidemic is dominated by variant strains that were likely present at low levels in previous domestic epidemics. We also identified epidemiological linkages between high incidence provinces consistent with observations based on surveillance data from human rabies cases.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/national-borders-effectively-halt-spread-rabies-current-rabies-epidemic-china-dislocated-cases-neigh", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "China"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497154"], "description"=>"<p>Table shows estimated geographic structure of RABVs using the Bayesian Tip-Significance testing (BaTS) software tool for Asian dataset 1 based on the estimated tree shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#pntd-0002039-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figure 1a</a>. Countries are assigned to the following states according to their geographic regions. A: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia; B: South Korea; C: China; D: Japan; E: Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka; F: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam; G: Philippines. Strength of geographical association for these locations across the entire tree is estimated by calculating the association index (AI) and the parsimony score (PS). Low AI and PS values correspond to strong phylogeny-trait associations. The correlation for each specific location is estimated by calculating the associated maximum monophyletic clade size (MC); larger MC values indicate stronger phylogeny-trait associations. The low AI and PS statistics indicate the isolates are mostly clustered according to their geographic origin. The large MC values (compared to the null value) indicate all the defined geographic regions exhibit population subdivision with the exception of region D (Japan) which indicates gene flow from other regions. See <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asian", "dataset"], "article_id"=>167661, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_trait_analysis_for_Asian_dataset_1_/167661", "title"=>"Phylogeny-trait analysis for Asian dataset 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:07:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497202"], "description"=>"<p>Table shows estimated geographic structure of RABVs using the Bayesian Tip-Significance testing (BaTS) software tool for Asian dataset 2 based on the estimated tree shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#pntd-0002039-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figure 1b</a>. See Countries are assigned to the following states according to their geographic regions. A: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia; B: South Korea; C: China; D: Japan; E: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan; F: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam; G: Philippines; H: Indonesia; I : Sri Lanka. Strength of geographical association for these locations across the entire tree is estimated as described for <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#pntd-0002039-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> for full details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asian", "dataset"], "article_id"=>167710, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_trait_analysis_for_Asian_dataset_2_/167710", "title"=>"Phylogeny-trait analysis for Asian dataset 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:08:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496680"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum Likelihood Trees for (a) dataset 4 and (b) dataset 5 containing sequences isolated in countries adjacent, or close to, the South China border. Outside bar indicates country of original according to colour and height of bar. In both trees, isolates form four major clades with strong bootstrap support. The majority of non Chinese isolates are placed in the China VI/SEA 3 and China II/SEA 2 clades. The China I/SEA 1 clade, which is the primary variant strain associated with the current epidemic in China, is exclusively composed of Chinese samples, with the exception of a small group of Vietnamese sequences (marked in yellow) in the left hand tree. These sequences form a separate branch with strong bootstrap support and the early branch point indicates these strains are distinct from the Chinese strains. The arrow marks a human sample from Viet Nam that is placed in the Chinese clade and which was isolated on the Vietnamese side of the principal border crossing into China. See main text for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "isolates", "china"], "article_id"=>167185, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_phylogenetic_relationship_of_isolates_close_to_south_China_border_/167185", "title"=>"Estimated phylogenetic relationship of isolates close to south China border.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 01:59:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496839"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree of dataset 6 using 232 full length N gene sequences of Chinese rabies virus isolates. Six distinct lineages (China I–VI) are predicted with high posterior value support with the majority of new cases placed in China I and China II. Estimated time of divergence for these two clades is shown on the X-axis. Horizontal branches are drawn according estimated year of divergence. Posterior probability values are shown for key nodes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "chinese"], "article_id"=>167345, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_phylogenetic_relationship_of_Chinese_isolates_/167345", "title"=>"Estimated phylogenetic relationship of Chinese isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:02:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496265"], "description"=>"<p>Multiple datasets were generated based on different regions of the N gene and representation of each country varies amongst datasets. Squares show GPS coordinates of samples in datasets 4 & 5 used in the analysis of isolates from both sides of the South China border. China sequences only show the province in which the sample was isolated. Full details of each dataset are supplied in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#pntd.0002039.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#pntd.0002039.s004\" target=\"_blank\">2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["isolates"], "article_id"=>166766, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_isolates_used_in_the_study_/166766", "title"=>"Location of isolates used in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 01:52:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496436"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree for Asia dataset 1 (a) and dataset 2 (b). Isolates from China are marked in red and marked with solid circle; isolates from other countries are marked in gray. Six distinct clusters are supported with strong a posteriori probability values: Indian subcontinent; Cosmopolitan; Arctic-related; Southeast Asia (SEA) SEA1; SEA2; and SEA3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "asia"], "article_id"=>166940, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_phylogenetic_relationship_of_South_East_Asia_isolates_/166940", "title"=>"Estimated phylogenetic relationship of South East Asia isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 01:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496558"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated RABV translocation events among Asian countries for dataset 1 (a) and dataset 2 (b). Migration events between two countries are indicated by a line between those countries with the line coloured according to the source state. For example, the arrow in the top right of (a) marks a translocation event between Russia (state n - coloured red) and China (state c - coloured orange) The colour assigned to each state is indicated by the outer circle. The colour on the inner circle corresponds to the sink state for the translocation event. Translocation events that are not statistically significant are coloured grey. For example, there are many translocation events predicted with China as the source, but none of them are significant. Country states are defined as follows: a: Afghanistan; b: Cambodia; c: China; d: India; e: Indonesia; f: Japan; g: Kazakhstan; h: Laos; i: Mongolia; j: Myanmar; k: Nepal; l: Pakistan; m: Philippines; n: Russia; o: South Korea; p: Sri Lanka; q: Thailand; r: Vietnam.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["translocation", "events", "asia"], "article_id"=>167065, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_translocation_events_among_South_East_Asia_isolates_/167065", "title"=>"Predicted translocation events among South East Asia isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 01:57:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497039"], "description"=>"<p>Discrete phylogeographic analysis of MCC tree shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039#pntd-0002039-g005\" target=\"_blank\">figure 5</a> for clades (a) China I (b) China II, the two dominant variant strains in the current epidemic. Linkages significant at Bayes Factor 3 are shown. Lines link locations that are epidemiologically related with the shading and line thickness indicating relative support. Darker and thicker lines correspond to stronger support (e.g., Hebei to Fujian in China I), thinner and lighter lines indicate weaker support (e.g. Jiangsu to Fujian in China II).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["translocation", "events"], "article_id"=>167544, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_translocation_events_within_China_/167544", "title"=>"Estimated translocation events within China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480734", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480738", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480742", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480752", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480755"], "description"=>"<div><p>China has seen a massive resurgence of rabies cases in the last 15 years with more than 25,000 human fatalities. Initial cases were reported in the southwest but are now reported in almost every province. There have been several phylogenetic investigations into the origin and spread of the virus within China but few reports investigating the impact of the epidemic on neighboring countries. We therefore collected nucleoprotein sequences from China and South East Asia and investigated their phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationship. Our results indicate that within South East Asia, isolates mainly cluster according to their geographic origin. We found evidence of sporadic exchange of strains between neighboring countries, but it appears that the major strain responsible for the current Chinese epidemic has not been exported. This suggests that national geographical boundaries and border controls are effective at halting the spread of rabies from China into adjacent regions. We further investigated the geographic structure of Chinese sequences and found that the current epidemic is dominated by variant strains that were likely present at low levels in previous domestic epidemics. We also identified epidemiological linkages between high incidence provinces consistent with observations based on surveillance data from human rabies cases.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["borders", "halt", "rabies", "china", "dislocated", "cases", "countries"], "article_id"=>155183, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Zhenyang Guo", "Xiaoyan Tao", "Cuiping Yin", "Na Han", "Jinning Yu", "Hao Li", "Haizhou Liu", "Wei Fang", "James Adams", "Jun Wang", "Guodong Liang", "Qing Tang", "Simon Rayner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002039.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>25, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/National_Borders_Effectively_Halt_the_Spread_of_Rabies_The_Current_Rabies_Epidemic_in_China_Is_Dislocated_from_Cases_in_Neighboring_Countries__/155183", "title"=>"National Borders Effectively Halt the Spread of Rabies: The Current Rabies Epidemic in China Is Dislocated from Cases in Neighboring Countries", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 01:26:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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