Novel Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like Cyst-forming Ciliates
Publication Date
March 28, 2013
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Kateřina Pomajbíková, Miroslav Oborník, Aleš Horák, Klára J. Petrželková, et al
Volume
7
Issue
3
Pages
e2140
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002140
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556024
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3610628
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23556024
Web of Science
000316943800053
Scopus
84875968069
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/novel-insights-genetic-diversity-balantidium-balantidiumlike-cystforming-ciliates
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Novel Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like Cyst-forming Ciliates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kateřina", "last_name"=>"Pomajbíková", "scopus_author_id"=>"26321977400"}, {"first_name"=>"Miroslav", "last_name"=>"Oborník", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602767352"}, {"first_name"=>"Aleš", "last_name"=>"Horák", "scopus_author_id"=>"35292391500"}, {"first_name"=>"Klára J.", "last_name"=>"Petrželková", "scopus_author_id"=>"12242989400"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Norman", "last_name"=>"Grim", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006934153"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Levecke", "scopus_author_id"=>"23091505100"}, {"first_name"=>"Angelique", "last_name"=>"Todd", "scopus_author_id"=>"16551329300"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Mulama", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200239779"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Kiyang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35728555800"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Modrý", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006678774"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23556024", "sgr"=>"84875968069", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875968069", "pui"=>"368694442", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19352735"}, "id"=>"3724d66d-33d3-34b0-90b8-222ff1f56165", "abstract"=>"Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, Balantidium coli has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of B. coli in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2). We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Balantidium entozoon from edible frog and Buxtonella sulcata from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of B. coli, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of B. coli at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely B. entozoon, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from B. coli. Thus, we propose a new genus Neobalantidium for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes) clustered with B. sulcata with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of Buxtonella and Neobalantidium are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of Buxtonella-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/novel-insights-genetic-diversity-balantidium-balantidiumlike-cystforming-ciliates", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001561"], "description"=>"<p>A. The numbers above the branches represent Maximum likelihood bootstrap supports as computed from 1000 replicates. The scale bar represents 10 changes per 100 positions. B–E. The tree is complemented by an AU topology test, with all tested topologies shown below the main tree (topologies shown in reduced form). New sequences are marked with a star.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trichostomatia", "ssrdna", "sequences", "computed"], "article_id"=>662925, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kateřina Pomajbíková", "Miroslav Oborník", "Aleš Horák", "Klára J. Petrželková", "J. Norman Grim", "Bruno Levecke", "Angelique Todd", "Martin Mulama", "John Kiyang", "David Modrý"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SSrDNA_tree_based_on_Trichostomatia_SSrDNA_sequences_computed_by_RAxML_/662925", "title"=>"SSrDNA tree based on Trichostomatia SSrDNA sequences computed by RAxML.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 19:05:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001563"], "description"=>"<p>The tree was computed using PhyML with the GTR model for nucleotide substitutions. Numbers above branches indicate ML bootstrap support from 1000 replicates/PhyloBayes posterior probabilities computed with CAT model/PhyloBayes posterior probabilities computed with GTR model. New sequences are marked with a star.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "inferred", "dna"], "article_id"=>662927, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kateřina Pomajbíková", "Miroslav Oborník", "Aleš Horák", "Klára J. Petrželková", "J. Norman Grim", "Bruno Levecke", "Angelique Todd", "Martin Mulama", "John Kiyang", "David Modrý"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maximum_likelihood_phylogenetic_tree_as_inferred_from_the_ITS1_5_8S_ITS2_DNA_region_/662927", "title"=>"Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree as inferred from the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 DNA region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 19:06:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1008583"], "description"=>"<p>Nl-Netherlands, K-Kenya, CAR-Central African Republic; S. No. – number of samples; A. No. 18S/ITS – accession numbers for 18S-rDNA/ITS1-5.8SrRNA-ITS2 sequences in the GenBank.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["isolates", "captive", "wild-ranging"], "article_id"=>669203, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kateřina Pomajbíková", "Miroslav Oborník", "Aleš Horák", "Klára J. Petrželková", "J. Norman Grim", "Bruno Levecke", "Angelique Todd", "Martin Mulama", "John Kiyang", "David Modrý"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_summary_of_isolates_from_captive_and_wild_ranging_other_primates_/669203", "title"=>"The summary of isolates from captive and wild-ranging other primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 02:33:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001567"], "description"=>"<p>A. <i>P. coli</i> from Malmstein (1857); B. <i>B. entozoon</i> from Claparéde & Lachmann (1858); and C. <i>B. sulcata</i> from Jameson (1926).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["drawings", "trophozoites"], "article_id"=>662931, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kateřina Pomajbíková", "Miroslav Oborník", "Aleš Horák", "Klára J. Petrželková", "J. Norman Grim", "Bruno Levecke", "Angelique Todd", "Martin Mulama", "John Kiyang", "David Modrý"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>456, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reproduction_of_the_original_drawings_of_trophozoites_of_Paramecium_coli_Balantidium_entozoon_and_Buxtonella_sulcata_/662931", "title"=>"Reproduction of the original drawings of trophozoites of <i>Paramecium coli</i>, <i>Balantidium entozoon</i> and <i>Buxtonella sulcata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 19:07:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001571"], "description"=>"<p>A. Cyst of <i>N. coli</i> from a domestic pig with visible ingested starch grains inside. B, D. Cysts of <i>Buxtonella</i>-like ciliate from an agile mangabey showing the trophozoite with visible rows of cilia (B, arrowhead). C. Cyst of <i>B. sulcata</i> from cattle with visible macronucleus (arrowhead). E. Trophozoite of <i>Buxtonella sulcata</i> with typical sulcus (arrowhead); scale bar = 20 µm. F. Detail of sulcus of <i>Buxtonella sulcata</i> (arrowhead); scale bar = 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cysts"], "article_id"=>662933, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kateřina Pomajbíková", "Miroslav Oborník", "Aleš Horák", "Klára J. Petrželková", "J. Norman Grim", "Bruno Levecke", "Angelique Todd", "Martin Mulama", "John Kiyang", "David Modrý"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>504, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_D_Comparison_of_cysts_of_Neobalantidium_coli_Buxtonella_sulcata_and_a_Buxtonella_like_ciliate_scale_bars_10_m_/662933", "title"=>"A–D: Comparison of cysts of <i>Neobalantidium coli</i>, <i>Buxtonella sulcata</i> and a <i>Buxtonella</i>-like ciliate; scale bars = 10 µm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 19:09:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001573", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001574", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001576", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1001577"], "description"=>"<div><p>Balantidiasis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease with pigs serving as reservoir hosts. However, <i>Balantidium coli</i> has been recorded in many other mammalian species, including primates. Here, we evaluated the genetic diversity of <i>B. coli</i> in non-human primates using two gene markers (SSrDNA and ITS1-5.8SDNA-ITS2). We analyzed 49 isolates of ciliates from fecal samples originating from 11 species of captive and wild primates, domestic pigs and wild boar. The phylogenetic trees were computed using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. <i>Balantidium entozoon</i> from edible frog and <i>Buxtonella sulcata</i> from cattle were included in the analyses as the closest relatives of <i>B. coli</i>, as well as reference sequences of vestibuliferids. The SSrDNA tree showed the same phylogenetic diversification of <i>B. coli</i> at genus level as the tree constructed based on the ITS region. Based on the polymorphism of SSrDNA sequences, the type species of the genus, namely <i>B. entozoon</i>, appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from <i>B. coli</i>. Thus, we propose a new genus <i>Neobalantidium</i> for the homeothermic clade. Moreover, several isolates from both captive and wild primates (excluding great apes) clustered with <i>B. sulcata</i> with high support, suggesting the existence of a new species within this genus. The cysts of <i>Buxtonella</i> and <i>Neobalantidium</i> are morphologically indistinguishable and the presence of <i>Buxtonella</i>-like ciliates in primates opens the question about possible occurrence of these pathogens in humans.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["insights", "cyst-forming", "ciliates"], "article_id"=>662934, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kateřina Pomajbíková", "Miroslav Oborník", "Aleš Horák", "Klára J. Petrželková", "J. Norman Grim", "Bruno Levecke", "Angelique Todd", "Martin Mulama", "John Kiyang", "David Modrý"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002140.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>34, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Novel_Insights_into_the_Genetic_Diversity_of_Balantidium_and_Balantidium_like_Cyst_forming_Ciliates/662934", "title"=>"Novel Insights into the Genetic Diversity of <i>Balantidium</i> and <i>Balantidium</i>-like Cyst-forming Ciliates", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 19:11:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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