Factors Affecting the Propensity of Tsetse Flies to Enter Houses and Attack Humans Inside: Increased Risk of Sleeping Sickness in Warmer Climates
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{"title"=>"Factors Affecting the Propensity of Tsetse Flies to Enter Houses and Attack Humans Inside: Increased Risk of Sleeping Sickness in Warmer Climates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Glyn A.", "last_name"=>"Vale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006061927"}, {"first_name"=>"John W.", "last_name"=>"Hargrove", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004979791"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Chamisa", "scopus_author_id"=>"54580722300"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404435415"}, {"first_name"=>"Clement", "last_name"=>"Mangwiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"55618061500"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen J.", "last_name"=>"Torr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004101045"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876824406", "pmid"=>"23638209", "sgr"=>"84876824406", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002193", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19352735", "pui"=>"368819516"}, "id"=>"65cc1e49-6e8c-37e6-860c-b19913dd6998", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis, is caused by two species of Trypanosoma brucei that are transmitted to humans by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) when these insects take a bloodmeal. It is commonly assumed that humans must enter the normal woodland habitat of the flies to become infected, but recent studies found that tsetse frequently attack humans inside buildings. Factors affecting human/tsetse contact in buildings need identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Zimbabwe, tsetse were allowed access to a house via an open door. Those in the house at sunset, and those alighting on humans in the house during the day, were caught using hand-nets. Total catches were unaffected by: (i) the presence of humans in the house and at the door, (ii) wood smoke from a fire inside the house or just outside, (iii) open windows, and (iv) chemicals simulating the odor of cattle or of humans. Catches increased about 10-fold with rising ambient temperatures, and during the hottest months the proportion of the total catch that was taken from the humans increased from 5% to 13%. Of the tsetse caught from humans, 62% consisted of female G. morsitans morstans and both sexes of G. pallidipes, i.e., the group of tsetse that normally alight little on humans. Some of the tsetse caught were old enough to be effective vectors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Present results confirm previous suggestions that buildings provide a distinctive and important venue for transmission of sleeping sickness, especially since the normal repellence of humans and smoke seems poorly effective in such places. The importance of the venue would be increased in warmer climates.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/factors-affecting-propensity-tsetse-flies-enter-houses-attack-humans-inside-increased-risk-sleeping", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1035807"], "description"=>"1<p>Artificial ox odor.</p>2<p>Artificial human odor.</p><p>Total catches of male (M) and female (F) <i>G. m. morsitans</i> and <i>G. pallidipes</i> in all daily replicates of each treatment in each experiment, the daily mean of the catch of both sexes and species combined, and the 95% confidence limits of the mean. All humans except the doorman were inside the house; windows were closed unless stated otherwise.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "tsetse", "experiments"], "article_id"=>691437, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Glyn A. Vale", "John W. Hargrove", "Andrew Chamisa", "David R. Hall", "Clement Mangwiro", "Stephen J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002193.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_of_tsetse_from_the_house_in_seven_separate_experiments_with_various_treatments_/691437", "title"=>"Catches of tsetse from the house, in seven separate experiments with various treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-25 00:23:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1035805"], "description"=>"<p>Data for female <i>G. m. morsitans</i> (A) and <i>G. pallidipes</i> (B), taken from the house itself and from humans in the house. Sample sizes for <i>G. m. morsitans</i>: house 46 and humans 33; for <i>G. pallidipes</i>: 336 and 5, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "ovarian", "categories"], "article_id"=>691435, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Glyn A. Vale", "John W. Hargrove", "Andrew Chamisa", "David R. Hall", "Clement Mangwiro", "Stephen J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002193.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_ovarian_categories_in_catches_/691435", "title"=>"Distribution of ovarian categories in catches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-25 00:23:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1035806"], "description"=>"1<p>Confidence limits for percent caught from humans.</p><p>Catches from the humans were made during the day. Catches from the house were made at the end of the day.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "humans", "95", "days", "experiments"], "article_id"=>691436, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Glyn A. Vale", "John W. Hargrove", "Andrew Chamisa", "David R. Hall", "Clement Mangwiro", "Stephen J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002193.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_from_humans_in_the_house_and_from_the_house_itself_in_95_days_during_Experiments_1_8211_6_/691436", "title"=>"Catches from humans in the house and from the house itself, in 95 days during Experiments 1–6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-25 00:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1035803"], "description"=>"<p>Samples sizes of 49 for male <i>G. m. morsitans</i>, 61 for female <i>G. m. morsitans</i>, and 19 for male+female <i>G. pallidipes</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "catches", "tsetse", "humans"], "article_id"=>691433, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Glyn A. Vale", "John W. Hargrove", "Andrew Chamisa", "David R. Hall", "Clement Mangwiro", "Stephen J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002193.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diurnal_distribution_of_catches_of_tsetse_from_humans_in_the_house_/691433", "title"=>"Diurnal distribution of catches of tsetse from humans in the house.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-25 00:23:53"}

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