Cofactor-Independent Phosphoglycerate Mutase from Nematodes Has Limited Druggability, as Revealed by Two High-Throughput Screens
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{"title"=>"Cofactor-Independent Phosphoglycerate Mutase from Nematodes Has Limited Druggability, as Revealed by Two High-Throughput Screens", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gregory J.", "last_name"=>"Crowther", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701380774"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"Booker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003672943"}, {"first_name"=>"Min", "last_name"=>"He", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188562867"}, {"first_name"=>"Ting", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192406435"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvine", "last_name"=>"Raverdy", "scopus_author_id"=>"15835504200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacopo F.", "last_name"=>"Novelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603776506"}, {"first_name"=>"Panqing", "last_name"=>"He", "scopus_author_id"=>"55277658000"}, {"first_name"=>"Natalie R.G.", "last_name"=>"Dale", "scopus_author_id"=>"56032234400"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy M.", "last_name"=>"Fife", "scopus_author_id"=>"56031257500"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert H.", "last_name"=>"Barker", "scopus_author_id"=>"55979246500"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin L.", "last_name"=>"Kramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36781368600"}, {"first_name"=>"Wesley C.", "last_name"=>"Van Voorhis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005691996"}, {"first_name"=>"Clotilde K.S.", "last_name"=>"Carlow", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603794357"}, {"first_name"=>"Ming Wei", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35075345400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372348917", "sgr"=>"84893807769", "issn"=>"19352735", "pmid"=>"24416464", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893807769", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628"}, "id"=>"276ea6d4-573a-30b1-bc8d-5ac05e800bb3", "abstract"=>"Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGAM) is essential for the growth of C. elegans but is absent from humans, suggesting its potential as a drug target in parasitic nematodes such as Brugia malayi, a cause of lymphatic filariasis (LF). iPGAM's active site is small and hydrophilic, implying that it may not be druggable, but another binding site might permit allosteric inhibition. As a comprehensive assessment of iPGAM's druggability, high-throughput screening (HTS) was conducted at two different locations: ∼220,000 compounds were tested against the C. elegans iPGAM by Genzyme Corporation, and ∼160,000 compounds were screened against the B. malayi iPGAM at the National Center for Drug Screening in Shanghai. iPGAM's catalytic activity was coupled to downstream glycolytic enzymes, resulting in NADH consumption, as monitored by a decline in visible-light absorbance at 340 nm. This assay performed well in both screens (Z'-factor >0.50) and identified two novel inhibitors that may be useful as chemical probes. However, these compounds have very modest potency against the B. malayi iPGAM (IC50 >10 µM) and represent isolated singleton hits rather than members of a common scaffold. Thus, despite the other appealing properties of the nematode iPGAMs, their low druggability makes them challenging to pursue as drug targets. This study illustrates a \"druggability paradox\" of target-based drug discovery: proteins are generally unsuitable for resource-intensive HTS unless they are considered druggable, yet druggability is often difficult to predict in the absence of HTS data.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cofactorindependent-phosphoglycerate-mutase-nematodes-limited-druggability-revealed-two-highthroughp", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1344324"], "description"=>"<p>TOP: scattergram of percent inhibition data from all plates in the Genzyme HTS. Green: 100% inhibition control; red: 50% inhibition control; black: 0% inhibition control; blue: data for test compounds screened at 10 µM. BOTTOM: scattergram of NCDS data representing uninhibited iPGAM (2% DMSO, shown in red) and inhibited iPGAM (200 µM tannic acid, shown in black). 1120 wells for each condition, spread over seventy 384-well plates, are shown. Dashed lines indicate means ±3× standard deviation (SD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "enzymes", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Lymphatic filariasis", "hts", "assays", "performed", "genzyme", "ncds"], "article_id"=>898725, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gregory J. Crowther", "Michael L. Booker", "Min He", "Ting Li", "Sylvine Raverdy", "Jacopo F. Novelli", "Panqing He", "Natalie R. G. Dale", "Amy M. Fife", "Robert H. Barker Jr", "Martin L. Kramer", "Wesley C. Van Voorhis", "Clotilde K. S. Carlow", "Ming-Wei Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Robustness_of_the_HTS_assays_performed_at_Genzyme_top_and_NCDS_bottom_/898725", "title"=>"Robustness of the HTS assays performed at Genzyme (top) and NCDS (bottom).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-09 03:39:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1344322"], "description"=>"<p>The distribution of compounds is shown as a function of percent inhibition of the enzyme.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "enzymes", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Lymphatic filariasis", "hts", "compounds"], "article_id"=>898723, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gregory J. Crowther", "Michael L. Booker", "Min He", "Ting Li", "Sylvine Raverdy", "Jacopo F. Novelli", "Panqing He", "Natalie R. G. Dale", "Amy M. Fife", "Robert H. Barker Jr", "Martin L. Kramer", "Wesley C. Van Voorhis", "Clotilde K. S. Carlow", "Ming-Wei Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_NCDS_s_HTS_of_160_000_compounds_against_the_B_malayi_iPGAM_/898723", "title"=>"Results of NCDS's HTS of 160,000 compounds against the <i>B. malayi</i> iPGAM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-09 03:39:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1344323"], "description"=>"<p>Note that tannic acid may inhibit iPGAM via nonspecific aggregation <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628#pntd.0002628-Pohjala1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>; this would render it unsuitable as a chemical probe, but does not prevent its use as a control inhibitor for comparison of inhibited and uninhibited samples. Nonlinear regression and IC<sub>50</sub> value were analyzed with GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad, San Diego, CA, USA). Data are expressed as means ± SEM of at least 3 independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "enzymes", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Lymphatic filariasis", "confirmed", "ncds-1", "inhibitor", "tannic", "tested", "concentrations", "400"], "article_id"=>898724, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gregory J. Crowther", "Michael L. Booker", "Min He", "Ting Li", "Sylvine Raverdy", "Jacopo F. Novelli", "Panqing He", "Natalie R. G. Dale", "Amy M. Fife", "Robert H. Barker Jr", "Martin L. Kramer", "Wesley C. Van Voorhis", "Clotilde K. S. Carlow", "Ming-Wei Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_response_curve_of_the_confirmed_hit_NCDS_1_NCDS_1_and_control_inhibitor_tannic_acid_were_tested_at_concentrations_from_0_78_181_M_to_400_181_M_/898724", "title"=>"Dose-response curve of the confirmed hit NCDS-1. NCDS-1 and control inhibitor tannic acid were tested at concentrations from 0.78 µM to 400 µM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-09 03:39:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1344320"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "enzymes", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Lymphatic filariasis", "workflow", "hts", "compounds"], "article_id"=>898721, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gregory J. Crowther", "Michael L. Booker", "Min He", "Ting Li", "Sylvine Raverdy", "Jacopo F. Novelli", "Panqing He", "Natalie R. G. Dale", "Amy M. Fife", "Robert H. Barker Jr", "Martin L. Kramer", "Wesley C. Van Voorhis", "Clotilde K. S. Carlow", "Ming-Wei Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_summary_of_the_screening_workflow_at_the_two_HTS_sites_along_with_the_number_of_compounds_passing_through_each_step_/898721", "title"=>"A summary of the screening workflow at the two HTS sites, along with the number of compounds passing through each step.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-09 03:39:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1344321"], "description"=>"<p>N.D. = Not determined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "drug discovery", "enzymes", "Drugs and devices", "Drug research and development", "Infectious diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Lymphatic filariasis", "inhibitors"], "article_id"=>898722, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Gregory J. Crowther", "Michael L. Booker", "Min He", "Ting Li", "Sylvine Raverdy", "Jacopo F. Novelli", "Panqing He", "Natalie R. G. Dale", "Amy M. Fife", "Robert H. Barker Jr", "Martin L. Kramer", "Wesley C. Van Voorhis", "Clotilde K. S. Carlow", "Ming-Wei Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002628.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Novel_inhibitors_of_B_malayi_iPGAM_/898722", "title"=>"Novel inhibitors of <i>B. malayi</i> iPGAM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-09 03:39:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
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