Spatial Analysis Spotlighting Early Childhood Leprosy Transmission in a Hyperendemic Municipality of the Brazilian Amazon Region
Publication Date
February 06, 2014
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, Donal Bisanzio, Layana De Souza Guimarães, John Stewart Spencer, et al
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
e2665
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002665
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516679
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916250
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24516679
Web of Science
000332017500045
Scopus
84895748093
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/spatial-analysis-spotlighting-early-childhood-leprosy-transmission-hyperendemic-municipality-brazili
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Spatial Analysis Spotlighting Early Childhood Leprosy Transmission in a Hyperendemic Municipality of the Brazilian Amazon Region", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Josafá Gonçalves", "last_name"=>"Barreto", "scopus_author_id"=>"36452809300"}, {"first_name"=>"Donal", "last_name"=>"Bisanzio", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196394991"}, {"first_name"=>"Layana Souza", "last_name"=>"de Guimarães", "scopus_author_id"=>"56059905100"}, {"first_name"=>"John Stewart", "last_name"=>"Spencer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55220571100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gonzalo M.", "last_name"=>"Vazquez-Prokopec", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508232166"}, {"first_name"=>"Uriel", "last_name"=>"Kitron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003784237"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudio Guedes", "last_name"=>"Salgado", "scopus_author_id"=>"8522894300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19352735", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895748093", "sgr"=>"84895748093", "pui"=>"372548573", "isbn"=>"19352727 (ISSN)", "pmid"=>"24516679", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665"}, "id"=>"0f6f853e-4834-3fa7-b7a4-ab7c336569af", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. METHODOLOGY We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal). Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01). Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26-6.59; p<0.0001). Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3%) lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8%) were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5%) showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer) of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8%) were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide leprosy control programs to target intervention to high risk areas.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/spatial-analysis-spotlighting-early-childhood-leprosy-transmission-hyperendemic-municipality-brazili", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>4}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550629", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550630", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550631"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children.</p><p>Methodology</p><p>We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal). Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy.</p><p>Principal Findings</p><p>The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (<i>p</i><0.01). Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26–6.59; <i>p</i><0.0001). Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3%) lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8%) were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5%) showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer) of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8%) were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area).</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide leprosy control programs to target intervention to high risk areas.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases", "spotlighting", "hyperendemic", "municipality", "brazilian", "amazon"], "article_id"=>1070924, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_Analysis_Spotlighting_Early_Childhood_Leprosy_Transmission_in_a_Hyperendemic_Municipality_of_the_Brazilian_Amazon_Region_/1070924", "title"=>"Spatial Analysis Spotlighting Early Childhood Leprosy Transmission in a Hyperendemic Municipality of the Brazilian Amazon Region", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550626"], "description"=>"*<p>Annual detection rate per 100,000 people.</p><p>SEB = Spatially empirical Bayes.</p><p>LISA = Local indicator of spatial association (Local Moran's I).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases", "regions"], "article_id"=>1070921, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_specific_regions_in_the_urban_area_of_Castanhal_/1070921", "title"=>"Characteristics of the specific regions in the urban area of Castanhal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550624"], "description"=>"<p>An expanded view of a specific region identified as a cluster of leprosy (see <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665#pntd-0002665-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2C</a>, Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics), showing the space-time links among cases and the spatial relationship with a surveyed school and seropositive students.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases", "links", "cases", "proximity"], "article_id"=>1070919, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Space_time_links_among_cases_and_proximity_to_students_/1070919", "title"=>"Space-time links among cases and proximity to students.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550625"], "description"=>"*<p>Only statistically significant space-time lags are shown here (<i>p</i><0.05). Total number of analyzed cases = 499.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases", "space-time", "clustering"], "article_id"=>1070920, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Knox_space_time_clustering_analysis_for_leprosy_cases_/1070920", "title"=>"Knox space-time clustering analysis for leprosy cases.<sup>*</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550620"], "description"=>"<p>The spatial distribution of surveyed household contacts and school children according to their level of antibodies compared to the level of endemicity of the different census tracts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases", "surveyed", "contacts"], "article_id"=>1070915, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_surveyed_household_contacts_and_school_children_/1070915", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of surveyed household contacts and school children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550612"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The spatial distribution of individual leprosy cases overlying the respective Kernel density estimation layer, representing areas with a high and low density of cases per km<sup>2</sup>. (B) LISA test (local Moran's I) characterizing areas with a statistically significant (p<0.05) positive spatial association according to the raw detection rate. The areas marked as high-high indicate a high rate in an area surrounded by high values of the weighted average rate of the neighboring areas, and low-low represents areas with a lower rate surrounded by lower values. (C) The most likely cluster of leprosy detected by the Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics (<i>p</i><0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases"], "article_id"=>1070908, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clusters_of_leprosy_in_Castanhal_/1070908", "title"=>"Clusters of leprosy in Castanhal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1550609"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Population density per km<sup>2</sup> in the urban census tracts. (B) Raw number of leprosy cases per census tract. (C) Number of cases normalized by the population of each census tract per year (annual raw case detection rate per 100,000 people), classifying areas according to their level of endemicity, from low to hyperendemic, according to official parameters. (D) Spatially empirical Bayes smoothed detection rate (based on a queen spatial weight matrix) to smooth the differences between contiguous areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Disease mapping", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "leprosy", "neglected tropical diseases", "spatial"], "article_id"=>1070905, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Josafá Gonçalves Barreto", "Donal Bisanzio", "Layana de Souza Guimarães", "John Stewart Spencer", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec", "Uriel Kitron", "Claudio Guedes Salgado"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002665.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Population_density_and_spatial_distribution_of_leprosy_in_Castanhal_/1070905", "title"=>"Population density and spatial distribution of leprosy in Castanhal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 09:06:59"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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