Using Molecular Epidemiology to Track Toxoplasma gondii from Terrestrial Carnivores to Marine Hosts: Implications for Public Health and Conservation
Publication Date
May 29, 2014
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Elizabeth Van Wormer, Melissa A. Miller, Patricia A. Conrad, Michael E. Grigg, et al
Volume
8
Issue
5
Pages
e2852
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002852
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874796
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038486
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24874796
Web of Science
000337735100046
Scopus
84901781052
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-molecular-epidemiology-track-toxoplasma-gondii-terrestrial-carnivores-marine-hosts-implication
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Using Molecular Epidemiology to Track Toxoplasma gondii from Terrestrial Carnivores to Marine Hosts: Implications for Public Health and Conservation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"VanWormer", "scopus_author_id"=>"35333195400"}, {"first_name"=>"Melissa A.", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"55553727415"}, {"first_name"=>"Patricia A.", "last_name"=>"Conrad", "scopus_author_id"=>"35399456300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael E.", "last_name"=>"Grigg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005247795"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Rejmanek", "scopus_author_id"=>"25653131900"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim E.", "last_name"=>"Carpenter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101875070"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonna A.K.", "last_name"=>"Mazet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005723108"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19352735", "pui"=>"373228465", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852", "sgr"=>"84901781052", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84901781052", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24874796"}, "id"=>"f02a9873-4c24-334e-852f-7a18c4733d01", "abstract"=>"<title>Author Summary</title> <p><italic>Toxoplasma gondii</italic>, a global parasite shed by domestic and wild felids, can cause severe disease in people and animals. In coastal California, USA, many sea otters have died due to <italic>T. gondii</italic>. Because <italic>T. gondii</italic> is shed by felids on land, otter infection suggests that this extremely hardy parasite is transported in freshwater runoff to aquatic environments, where animals and humans can become exposed. Molecular characterization of <italic>T. gondii</italic> strains infecting terrestrial and marine hosts can provide clues about parasite transmission cycles and sources of otter infection. By testing 373 and characterizing <italic>T. gondii</italic> infection in 85 terrestrial carnivores (domestic cats and wild carnivores) sharing the California coast, we found that Type X, the type previously identified in over 70% of infected sea otters tested, was more common in wild felids than domestic cats. However, discovery of Type X in domestic cats in this region suggests that they may play an important role in marine infection, as their populations are larger than those of wild felids. Differences in types of <italic>T. gondii</italic> among carnivores and in urban and agricultural vs. undeveloped areas suggest that there are separate, but overlapping domestic and wild cycles of <italic>T. gondii</italic> transmission in coastal California.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-molecular-epidemiology-track-toxoplasma-gondii-terrestrial-carnivores-marine-hosts-implication", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Venezuela"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84901781052"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84901781052?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84901781052&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84901781052&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84901781052", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84901781052", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84901781052", "dc:title"=>"Using Molecular Epidemiology to Track Toxoplasma gondii from Terrestrial Carnivores to Marine Hosts: Implications for Public Health and Conservation", "dc:creator"=>"VanWormer E.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "prism:issn"=>"19352727", "prism:eIssn"=>"19352735", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"5", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-01-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"MAY 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852", "citedby-count"=>"34", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"School of Veterinary Medicine", "affiliation-city"=>"Davis", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24874796", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e2852", "source-id"=>"11900154404", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosntds%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pntd.0002852", "share_count"=>3, "like_count"=>5, "comment_count"=>4, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>12}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"682"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"224"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"158"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"207"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"144"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514006"], "description"=>"a<p>Risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression models.</p>b<p>Carnivores were sampled in central coastal California from 2006–2009.</p>c<p><i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> type classified based on the allele present at the B1 locus. Spatial data were missing for 6 of the 85 carnivores in this model.</p>d<p>*  =  statistically significant risk factor for Type X infection, α = 0.05.</p>e<p><i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> genotypes classified based on the allele present at the B1 locus and sequence data for at least one single copy locus. Carnivores with RFLP data only or sequence data for only B1 were excluded. Spatial data were missing for 4 of the 59 carnivores in this model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Parasitology", "Veterinary parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary epidemiology", "Zoology", "epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "Protozoan infections", "toxoplasmosis", "strains", "terrestrial"], "article_id"=>1040180, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elizabeth VanWormer", "Melissa A. Miller", "Patricia A. Conrad", "Michael E. Grigg", "Daniel Rejmanek", "Tim E. Carpenter", "Jonna A. K. Mazet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factors_for_infection_with_Toxoplasma_gondii_strains_consistent_with_Type_X_in_domestic_and_wild_terrestrial_carnivores_/1040180", "title"=>"Risk factors for infection with <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> strains consistent with Type X in domestic and wild terrestrial carnivores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-05-29 04:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514003"], "description"=>"<p><i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> DNA was detected in 85 of 373 terrestrial carnivores (mountain lions, bobcats, foxes, coyotes, and feral domestic cats) sampled along the sea otter range in coastal California, USA, 2006–2009. Alleles present at the B1 locus were identified following nested PCR amplification of DNA extracted from tissue and parasite culture samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping, and direct sequencing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Parasitology", "Veterinary parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary epidemiology", "Zoology", "epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "Protozoan infections", "toxoplasmosis", "carnivores", "alleles", "characterized", "b1", "locus"], "article_id"=>1040177, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elizabeth VanWormer", "Melissa A. Miller", "Patricia A. Conrad", "Michael E. Grigg", "Daniel Rejmanek", "Tim E. Carpenter", "Jonna A. K. Mazet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_Toxoplasma_gondii_173_infected_carnivores_with_alleles_characterized_at_the_B1_locus_in_coastal_California_/1040177", "title"=>"Distribution of <i>Toxoplasma gondii­</i>-infected carnivores with alleles characterized at the B1 locus in coastal California.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-29 04:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514015", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514016", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514017"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Environmental transmission of the zoonotic parasite <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>, which is shed only by felids, poses risks to human and animal health in temperate and tropical ecosystems. Atypical <i>T. gondii</i> genotypes have been linked to severe disease in people and the threatened population of California sea otters. To investigate land-to-sea parasite transmission, we screened 373 carnivores (feral domestic cats, mountain lions, bobcats, foxes, and coyotes) for <i>T. gondii</i> infection and examined the distribution of genotypes in 85 infected animals sampled near the sea otter range.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Nested PCR-RFLP analyses and direct DNA sequencing at six independent polymorphic genetic loci (B1, SAG1, SAG3, GRA6, L358, and Apico) were used to characterize <i>T. gondii</i> strains in infected animals. Strains consistent with Type X, a novel genotype previously identified in over 70% of infected sea otters and four terrestrial wild carnivores along the California coast, were detected in all sampled species, including domestic cats. However, odds of Type X infection were 14 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–148.6) for wild felids than feral domestic cats. Type X infection was also linked to undeveloped lands (OR = 22, 95% CI: 2.3–250.7). A spatial cluster of terrestrial Type II infection (P = 0.04) was identified in developed lands bordering an area of increased risk for sea otter Type II infection. Two spatial clusters of animals infected with strains consistent with Type X (P≤0.01) were detected in less developed landscapes.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Differences in <i>T. gondii</i> genotype prevalence among domestic and wild felids, as well as the spatial distribution of genotypes, suggest co-existing domestic and wild <i>T. gondii</i> transmission cycles that likely overlap at the interface of developed and undeveloped lands. Anthropogenic development driving contact between these cycles may increase atypical <i>T. gondii</i> genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Parasitology", "Veterinary parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary epidemiology", "Zoology", "epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "Protozoan infections", "toxoplasmosis", "molecular", "terrestrial", "carnivores", "implications"], "article_id"=>1040184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elizabeth VanWormer", "Melissa A. Miller", "Patricia A. Conrad", "Michael E. Grigg", "Daniel Rejmanek", "Tim E. Carpenter", "Jonna A. K. Mazet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Using_Molecular_Epidemiology_to_Track_Toxoplasma_gondii_from_Terrestrial_Carnivores_to_Marine_Hosts_Implications_for_Public_Health_and_Conservation/1040184", "title"=>"Using Molecular Epidemiology to Track <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> from Terrestrial Carnivores to Marine Hosts: Implications for Public Health and Conservation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-05-29 04:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514008"], "description"=>"a<p>FC  =  Feral cat: free-ranging, unowned domestic cats. ML  =  Mountain lion: wild felids of the species <i>Puma concolor</i>, also commonly called cougars or pumas.</p>b<p>Multi-locus genotypes refer to strains consistent with Type I, II, X or Atypical strains based on the alleles at six target loci determined by concatenated sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping data. <i>Toxoplasma gondii DNA</i> was amplified from postmortem brain or tongue tissue samples or from tachyzoite-infected cell cultures of brain tissue by nested PCR analyses. Genotypes consistent with Type I, II, or X based on fewer than six alleles may be atypical genotypes.</p>c<p>Predominant land use was characterized for each carnivore based on sampling location (animals sampled 2006–2009). D  =  predominantly developed urban, rural, and agricultural lands, U  =  predominantly undeveloped lands including forests, woodlands, grasslands, shrublands, and wetlands, NA  =  no spatial data available.</p>d<p>(-)  =  PCR was performed, but <i>T. gondii</i> DNA was not amplified.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Parasitology", "Veterinary parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary epidemiology", "Zoology", "epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "Protozoan infections", "toxoplasmosis", "alleles", "85", "terrestrial", "carnivores", "california"], "article_id"=>1040182, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elizabeth VanWormer", "Melissa A. Miller", "Patricia A. Conrad", "Michael E. Grigg", "Daniel Rejmanek", "Tim E. Carpenter", "Jonna A. K. Mazet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Toxoplasma_gondii_alleles_detected_in_85_domestic_and_wild_terrestrial_carnivores_from_the_central_California_coast_/1040182", "title"=>"<i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> alleles detected in 85 domestic and wild terrestrial carnivores from the central California coast.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-05-29 04:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514005"], "description"=>"<p>Significant spatial clusters (P<0.05) were identified using an elliptical scanning method while adjusting for the distribution of infected wild felids, wild canids, and feral domestic cats sampled from 2006–2009. The Type X <i>T. gondii</i> clusters contained more undeveloped lands than the Type II cluster, which predominantly included developed urban, rural, and agricultural areas. The Type II cluster, which was detected using strains with Type II alleles identified at two to five loci, remained significant when a more conservative subset of strains with Type II alleles identified at six loci (B1, SAG1, SAG3, GRA6, L358, and Apico) was used. The terrestrial Type II cluster borders a previously reported cluster of Type II infection in sea otters in Monterey Bay. Previously reported Type X-infected sea otters were found at locations bordering lands in the Type X terrestrial clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Parasitology", "Veterinary parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary epidemiology", "Zoology", "epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "Protozoan infections", "toxoplasmosis", "clusters", "carnivores", "infected", "strains", "ii"], "article_id"=>1040179, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elizabeth VanWormer", "Melissa A. Miller", "Patricia A. Conrad", "Michael E. Grigg", "Daniel Rejmanek", "Tim E. Carpenter", "Jonna A. K. Mazet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographic_clusters_of_carnivores_infected_with_Toxoplasma_gondii_strains_consistent_with_Type_II_and_Type_X_/1040179", "title"=>"Geographic clusters of carnivores infected with <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> strains consistent with Type II and Type X.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-29 04:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1514004"], "description"=>"<p>Type X alleles at the B1 locus were more prevalent in wild felids (mountain lions and bobcats) than feral domestic cats. Strains consistent with Type X remained more prevalent in wild felids within a more conservative subset of carnivores with alleles characterized at B1 and at least one additional locus (SAG1, SAG3, GRA6, L358, and/or Apico). Carnivores were sampled along the California sea otter range, 2006–2009. Error bars represent 95% exact confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Parasitology", "Veterinary parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary diseases", "Zoonoses", "Veterinary epidemiology", "Zoology", "epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Parasitic diseases", "Protozoan infections", "toxoplasmosis", "alleles", "strains"], "article_id"=>1040178, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Elizabeth VanWormer", "Melissa A. Miller", "Patricia A. Conrad", "Michael E. Grigg", "Daniel Rejmanek", "Tim E. Carpenter", "Jonna A. K. Mazet"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002852.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_Type_X_alleles_and_strains_consistent_with_Type_X_in_Toxoplasma_gondii_infected_carnivores_/1040178", "title"=>"Prevalence of Type X alleles and strains consistent with Type X in <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>-infected carnivores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-29 04:19:28"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[331]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[306, 482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Parasitology", "average_usage"=>[398, 644]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[320]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts