Strengths and Weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) Data-Loggers and Semi-structured Interviews for Capturing Fine-scale Human Mobility: Findings from Iquitos, Peru
Publication Date
June 12, 2014
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Valerie A. Paz Soldan, Robert C. Reiner Jr, Amy C. Morrison, Steven T. Stoddard, et al
Volume
8
Issue
6
Pages
e2888
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002888
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922530
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4055589
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24922530
Web of Science
000338846100020
Scopus
84903475793
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/strengths-weaknesses-global-positioning-system-gps-dataloggers-semistructured-interviews-capturing-f
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Strengths and Weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) Data-Loggers and Semi-structured Interviews for Capturing Fine-scale Human Mobility: Findings from Iquitos, Peru", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Valerie A.", "last_name"=>"Paz-Soldan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507482563"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert C.", "last_name"=>"Reiner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005527221"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy C.", "last_name"=>"Morrison", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402258304"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven T.", "last_name"=>"Stoddard", "scopus_author_id"=>"35146591200"}, {"first_name"=>"Uriel", "last_name"=>"Kitron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003784237"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas W.", "last_name"=>"Scott", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402144111"}, {"first_name"=>"John P.", "last_name"=>"Elder", "scopus_author_id"=>"35232919000"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric S.", "last_name"=>"Halsey", "scopus_author_id"=>"8509774500"}, {"first_name"=>"Tadeusz J.", "last_name"=>"Kochel", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643476800"}, {"first_name"=>"Helvio", "last_name"=>"Astete", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507053812"}, {"first_name"=>"Gonzalo M.", "last_name"=>"Vazquez-Prokopec", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508232166"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903475793", "sgr"=>"84903475793", "issn"=>"19352735", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888", "pmid"=>"24922530", "isbn"=>"1935-2735", "pui"=>"373412731"}, "id"=>"18e0e0e8-3337-3e76-9985-74d7f13f1bff", "abstract"=>"Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80-100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50-80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n=101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for capturing fine-scale human mobility.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/strengths-weaknesses-global-positioning-system-gps-dataloggers-semistructured-interviews-capturing-f", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>16, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>15, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>16}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532588"], "description"=>"<p>Concordance between methods occurred when both methods identified the same location as visited by the same participant. A clustering algorithm was used to summarize raw GPS points into specific locations.</p>a<p>Locations identified on the SSI, but not on the GPS.</p>b<p>Locations identified on the GPS (using a clustering algorithm), but not on the SSI.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "locations", "semi-structured", "interviews", "gps"], "article_id"=>1055616, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_number_of_8220_concordant_8221_locations_identified_by_semi_structured_interviews_and_GPS_from_both_study_phases_/1055616", "title"=>"Comparison of number of “concordant” locations identified by semi-structured interviews and GPS from both study phases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532586"], "description"=>"<p>Given both types of locations were joined to the Iquitos GIS, the lot code was provided to ease identification of locations in the database. Size of points was proportional to reported or calculated time spent at each location. Inset of map shows locations within the city of Iquitos. GPS-derived locations were obtained using a clustering algorithm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "causes", "discordance", "gps-derived", "semi-structured"], "article_id"=>1055614, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_map_to_interview_participants_about_possible_causes_of_discordance_between_GPS_derived_vs_semi_structured_interview_locations_/1055614", "title"=>"Sample map to interview participants about possible causes of discordance between GPS-derived vs. semi-structured interview locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532582"], "description"=>"<p>Concordance is expressed as the proportion of locations for which a SSI-GPS match was found. Panels show values for different location types, combinations of GPS data collection frequencies (15, 90 and 150 seconds) and number of GPS points used to define a visit (1, 5 and 10 points).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "ssi", "locations", "gps", "positions", "20", "meters"], "article_id"=>1055610, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concordance_between_SSI_locations_and_raw_GPS_positions_at_20_meters_from_a_SSI_location_/1055610", "title"=>"Concordance between SSI locations and raw GPS positions at 20 meters from a SSI location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532575"], "description"=>"<p>Concordance was expressed as the percentage of locations for which a SSI-GPS match was found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "ssi", "locations", "gps", "positions", "buffer"], "article_id"=>1055607, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concordance_between_SSI_locations_and_raw_GPS_positions_at_different_distance_buffer_thresholds_GPS_data_collection_frequencies_and_number_of_GPS_points_/1055607", "title"=>"Concordance between SSI locations and raw GPS positions at different distance buffer thresholds, GPS data collection frequencies, and number of GPS points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532568"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Spatial distribution of all locations reported as visited by 160 participants during a 14-day period. (B) Raw GPS tracks (yellow points) and locations inferred after the application of a data-reduction algorithm (black dots) that assigns each track to a specific location code in the Iquitos GIS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "inferred", "semi-structured", "interviews", "gps"], "article_id"=>1055603, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_inferred_by_A_semi_structured_interviews_SSI_and_B_GPS_units_/1055603", "title"=>"Locations inferred by (A) semi-structured interviews (SSI) and (B) GPS units.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532592"], "description"=>"<div><p>Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80–100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50–80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n = 101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for capturing fine-scale human mobility.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "weaknesses", "positioning", "data-loggers", "semi-structured", "interviews", "capturing", "fine-scale", "findings"], "article_id"=>1055620, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strengths_and_Weaknesses_of_Global_Positioning_System_GPS_Data_Loggers_and_Semi_structured_Interviews_for_Capturing_Fine_scale_Human_Mobility_Findings_from_Iquitos_Peru_/1055620", "title"=>"Strengths and Weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) Data-Loggers and Semi-structured Interviews for Capturing Fine-scale Human Mobility: Findings from Iquitos, Peru", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532589"], "description"=>"<p>A clustering algorithm was used to summarize raw GPS points into specific locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "discordance", "locations", "semi-structured", "interviews", "gps"], "article_id"=>1055617, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reasons_for_discordance_given_by_participants_between_locations_from_semi_structured_interviews_SSI_and_GPS_data_from_Phase_2_n_8202_8202_101_/1055617", "title"=>"Reasons for discordance given by participants between locations from semi-structured interviews (SSI) and GPS data, from Phase 2 (n = 101).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1532587"], "description"=>"<p>Phase 1 included individuals who used the GPS units at all times for 14 days and responded (on day 15) to a retrospective SSI, whereas Phase 2 included the same methods as Phase 1, but in addition individuals were interviewed on day 18 about any discordant information (i.e., locations on the SSI but not registered on the GPS, or vice versa).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography", "Infectious diseases", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "160", "concurrent", "semi-structured", "interviews", "gps", "tracking"], "article_id"=>1055615, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Valerie A. Paz-Soldan", "Robert C. Reiner Jr", "Amy C. Morrison", "Steven T. Stoddard", "Uriel Kitron", "Thomas W. Scott", "John P. Elder", "Eric S. Halsey", "Tadeusz J. Kochel", "Helvio Astete", "Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002888.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_description_of_160_participants_for_which_concurrent_semi_structured_interviews_and_GPS_tracking_were_performed_/1055615", "title"=>"Demographic description of 160 participants for which concurrent semi-structured interviews and GPS tracking were performed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-12 03:16:29"}

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Relative Metric

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