Disease Progression in Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Is Linked to Variation in Invasion Gene Family Members
Publication Date
August 14, 2014
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Atique M. Ahmed, Miguel M. Pinheiro, Paul C. Divis, Angela Siner, et al
Volume
8
Issue
8
Pages
e3086
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003086
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25121807
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4133233
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25121807
Web of Science
000341574700049
Scopus
84925652983
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/disease-progression-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-linked-variation-invasion-gene-family-members
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Disease Progression in Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Is Linked to Variation in Invasion Gene Family Members", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Atique M.", "last_name"=>"Ahmed", "scopus_author_id"=>"55432982800"}, {"first_name"=>"Miguel M.", "last_name"=>"Pinheiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101819179"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul C.", "last_name"=>"Divis", "scopus_author_id"=>"26030390700"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Siner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508184029"}, {"first_name"=>"Ramlah", "last_name"=>"Zainudin", "scopus_author_id"=>"35118355400"}, {"first_name"=>"Ing Tien", "last_name"=>"Wong", "scopus_author_id"=>"55432960000"}, {"first_name"=>"Chan Woon", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56571724900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarina K.", "last_name"=>"Singh-Khaira", "scopus_author_id"=>"56572842900"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott B.", "last_name"=>"Millar", "scopus_author_id"=>"56572335500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sean", "last_name"=>"Lynch", "scopus_author_id"=>"56572113100"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthias", "last_name"=>"Willmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55432866400"}, {"first_name"=>"Balbir", "last_name"=>"Singh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55316249600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sanjeev", "last_name"=>"Krishna", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102243526"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet", "last_name"=>"Cox-Singh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602114768"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"603272899", "sgr"=>"84925652983", "issn"=>"19352735", "pmid"=>"25443854", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925652983", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086", "isbn"=>"1506279112"}, "id"=>"e4ce77e5-238f-348b-a88c-99a2e6d67ba7", "abstract"=>"Land use changes, such as deforestation, urbanisation and agriculture can affect mosquito abundance, diversity and community composition. The expansion of oil palm plantation sites in South-east Asia is the main cause for deforestation which could result in a higher prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever. This study focuses on how different land use areas (old growth, secondary forest, oil palm and housing) affect mosquito diversity, abundance and community composition. Modified ovitraps with oviposition substrates were placed in each land use area to collect mosquito eggs and larvae. Water temperatures, amount of shade and leaf number were recorded for each site. Results showed that there was a higher diversity and abundance in the old growth and secondary forest areas, but this decreased in oil palm and housing areas. A high abundance of Aedes eggs were associated with increased shade and leaf litter. The dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found within the housing areas, but not in other land use areas. Very few Aedes eggs hatched successfully in the housing area. This study highlighted that the diversity of mosquito decreased from old growth to housing areas, but the most medically important mosquitoes were only found after urbanisation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/disease-progression-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-linked-variation-invasion-gene-family-members", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>15, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>15}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>2, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636440", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636441", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636442", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636443", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636444", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636445", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636446", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636447", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636448", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636449", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636450", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636451", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636452", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636453", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636454", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636455", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636456"], "description"=>"<div><p>Emerging pathogens undermine initiatives to control the global health impact of infectious diseases. Zoonotic malaria is no exception. <i>Plasmodium knowlesi</i>, a malaria parasite of Southeast Asian macaques, has entered the human population. <i>P. knowlesi</i>, like <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i>, can reach high parasitaemia in human infections, and the World Health Organization guidelines for severe malaria list hyperparasitaemia among the measures of severe malaria in both infections. Not all patients with <i>P. knowlesi</i> infections develop hyperparasitaemia, and it is important to determine why. Between isolate variability in erythrocyte invasion, efficiency seems key. Here we investigate the idea that particular alleles of two <i>P. knowlesi</i> erythrocyte invasion genes, <i>P. knowlesi</i> normocyte binding protein <i>Pknbpxa</i> and <i>Pknbpxb</i>, influence parasitaemia and human disease progression. <i>Pknbpxa</i> and <i>Pknbpxb</i> reference DNA sequences were generated from five geographically and temporally distinct <i>P. knowlesi</i> patient isolates. Polymorphic regions of each gene (approximately 800 bp) were identified by haplotyping 147 patient isolates at each locus. Parasitaemia in the study cohort was associated with markers of disease severity including liver and renal dysfunction, haemoglobin, platelets and lactate, (r = ≥0.34,<i>p</i> = <0.0001 for all). Seventy-five and 51 <i>Pknbpxa</i> and <i>Pknbpxb</i> haplotypes were resolved in 138 (94%) and 134 (92%) patient isolates respectively. The haplotypes formed twelve <i>Pknbpxa</i> and two <i>Pknbpxb</i> allelic groups. Patients infected with parasites with particular <i>Pknbpxa</i> and <i>Pknbpxb</i> alleles within the groups had significantly higher parasitaemia and other markers of disease severity. Our study strongly suggests that <i>P. knowlesi</i> invasion gene variants contribute to parasite virulence. We focused on two invasion genes, and we anticipate that additional virulent loci will be identified in pathogen genome-wide studies. The multiple sustained entries of this diverse pathogen into the human population must give cause for concern to malaria elimination strategists in the Southeast Asian region.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139642, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.s017"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>91, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Disease_Progression_in_Plasmodium_knowlesi_Malaria_Is_Linked_to_Variation_in_Invasion_Gene_Family_Members/1139642", "title"=>"Disease Progression in <i>Plasmodium knowlesi</i> Malaria Is Linked to Variation in Invasion Gene Family Members", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636435"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 51 haplotypes were resolved in 134 patient isolates (Blue). Each node represents one haplotype and the size of the coloured nodes is relative to the frequency. The frequency number is given for all nodes with a frequency >1. Intermediary gray nodes represent missing haplotypes required to connect two different haplotypes. (<b>B</b>) <i>Pknbpxb</i> haplotype group 1. Haplotypes with allele ii <i>Pkbnpxb</i>2638A, lower haemoglobin and higher axillary temperature, are shown in brown radiating from a high frequency haplotype (f = 18). (<b>C</b>) <i>Pknbpxb</i> group 2 haplotypes, alleles i (blue), ii (green) appeared as discrete clusters Allele iii (pink) had increased markers of disease severity and formed 2 clusters. Four isolates were excluded and appear as larger grey nodes. Haplotypes with alleles ii and iii cluster together. Alleles shared with <i>Pknbpxb</i> group 1 are boxed. Haplotypes were generated using Arlequin v3.5.1.2 and the network drawn with Gephi v0.8.2 and manual edited to add the missing haplotypes markers. Haplotype groups were mapped onto the minimum spanning network by applying the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139637, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>146, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pknbpxb_minimum_spanning_haplotype_network_/1139637", "title"=>"<i>Pknbpxb </i>minimum spanning haplotype network.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636434"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 75 haplotypes were resolved in 138 patient isolates coloured nodes. Isolates in the KH273 dimorphic group are in green and those in the KH195 dimorphism in blue. Each node represents one haplotype and the size of the coloured nodes is relative to the frequency. The frequency number is given for all nodes with a frequency >1. Intermediary gray nodes represent missing haplotypes required to connect two different haplotypes. (<b>B</b>) Haplotypes with <i>Pkbnpxa</i> group 6 allele iii (913C) that had increased markers of disease severity are shown in yellow. <i>P. knowlesi</i> isolates with this mutation appear in 2 clusters within the KH195 dimorphism. (<b>C</b>) Haplotypes with <i>Pknbpxa</i> group 8 982 alleles are shown: 982T allele i (KH273 green); 982G allele ii (KH195 blue); 982C allele iii (KH195 pink). Group 8 alleles ii and iii had increased markers of disease severity when compared with allele i. There is one main cluster of 982C (pink) haplotypes with 5 additional and apparently un-connected to the main cluster that appear on the edges of the network. 982C (pink) haplotypes all occur in the KH195 dimorphic group (4a blue). Note that the boxed nodes also contain <i>Pknbpxa</i> 913C (4b). Haplotypes were generated using Arlequin v3.5.1.2 and the network drawn with Gephi v0.8.2 with manual editing to add the missing haplotypes. Haplotype groups were mapped onto the minimum spanning network by applying the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139636, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pknbpxa_minimum_spanning_haplotype_network_/1139636", "title"=>"<i>Pknbpxa</i> minimum spanning haplotype network.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636439"], "description"=>"<p>Pre-treatment values and measurements are summarised as median (inter quartile range) except where stated differently. Numbers in square brackets, []  = n when different from total number of patients in each group. The <i>P. knowlesi</i> [147], <i>P. falciparum</i> and <i>P. vivax</i> groups were tested for significant differences with the <i>P. knowlesi</i> [232] group using the Mann-Whitney U Test and the un-paired t test with Welch's correction, Prism 4 for Macintosh, GraphPad Software, Inc. * <i>p</i> = <0.05 compared with <i>P. knowlesi</i> [232] and <b><sup>§</sup></b>when compared with <i>P. knowlesi</i> [147].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139641, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_demographic_data_clinical_characteristics_and_laboratory_results_for_P_knowlesi_patients_n_232_P_knowlesi_subset_n_147_P_vivax_and_P_falciparum_patients_/1139641", "title"=>"Summary of demographic data, clinical characteristics and laboratory results for <i>P. knowlesi</i> patients [n = 232], <i>P. knowlesi</i> subset [n = 147], <i>P. vivax</i> and <i>P. falciparum</i> patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636437"], "description"=>"<p>n = number of sequences sampled; BP = number of sites analyzed (all within coding region and there were no gaps); SNP = number of polymorphic sites; NS = number of non-synonymous substitutions; S = number of synonymous substitutions; <b>π</b> = average pairwise nucleotide diversity calculated using Jukes-Cantor correction with standard deviation in parenthesis calculated using DnaSP v 5.10.01; d = nucleotide diversity calculated using Tamura's three-parameter model with standard error in parentheses calculated using MEGA v 5.05</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139639, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pknbpxa_and_Pknbpxb_reference_and_haplotyping_sequence_diversity_/1139639", "title"=>"<i>Pknbpxa</i> and <i>Pknbpxb</i> reference and haplotyping sequence diversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636438"], "description"=>"<p>The (r) statistic was calculated using Prism 4 for Macintosh, GraphPad Software, Inc. Pearson's correlation was used for parametric data and marked* otherwise for non-parametric data Spearman's correlation test was used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139640, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_and_laboratory_measures_of_disease_progression_that_associate_with_P_knowlesi_parasitaemia_/1139640", "title"=>"Clinical and laboratory measures of disease progression that associate with <i>P. knowlesi</i> parasitaemia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636436"], "description"=>"<p>The LD matrix was inferred with Haploview (Barrett et al, 2005) and an in-house script for data input in the X chromosome format suitable for haploid data. <i>Pknbpxa</i> alleles are to the left of the blue line and <i>Pknbpxb</i> to the right. The intensity of shading reflects the strength of linkage in the correlation between pairs of loci (r<sup>2</sup>), black being strong r<sup>2</sup> >0.8. Linkage between the two genes was detected between <i>Pknbpxa</i> positions 810 and 1105 marked1 and 2 respectively and <i>Pknbpxb</i> positions 2403 and 3110 marked 3 and 4 respectively. Linkage between these sites is shown as red triangles where D'>0.99 and LOD>2 but with otherwise low r<sup>2</sup> values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139638, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linkage_disequilibrium_LD_Pknbpxa_and_Pknbpxb_/1139638", "title"=>"Linkage disequilibrium (LD), <i>Pknbpxa</i> and <i>Pknbpxb</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636433"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic representation of <i>Pknbpxb</i> 9571 bp. (<b>A</b>) Exon 1 and the intron (solid line) are followed by exon II beginning at nucleotide 346 (EU867792). Pknbpxb cysteine residues at codon positions 193,254,298,326 and 332 that are implicated in erythrocyte binding, Meyer <i>et al</i>., <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086#pntd.0003086-Bei1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, were not within the haplotyping fragment but were conserved in the five patient reference isolates. (<b>B</b>) A fragment from nucleotide1 to 3448 was amplified in five reference isolates. Synonymous (short vertical lines) and non-synonymous (long vertical lines)mutations are marked. (<b>C</b>) Graphical representation of a sliding window plot of nucleotide diversity per site. Diversity (<b>π</b>) was calculated using DnaSP v5.10 with window length 400 bp and step size 25 bp. Maximum diversity (<b>π</b> = 0.0056) was observed between nucleotide positions 2275 to 3156 (hatched line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139635, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_P_knowlesi_Pknbpxb_organisation_and_diversity_/1139635", "title"=>"<i>P. knowlesi Pknbpxb</i> organisation and diversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636432"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic representation of <i>Pknbpxa</i> 9578 bp. (<b>A</b>) Exon 1 and the intron (solid line) are followed by exon II begining at nucleotide 389 (EU867791). Pknbpxa cysteine residues at codon positions 181,239,283,311 and 315 that are implicated in erythrocyte binding, Meyer, <i>et al.</i>, <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086#pntd.0003086-Bei1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, were within the haplotyping fragment and conserved in all patient isolates. (<b>B</b>)A fragment from nucleotide 389–8889 (8501bp) was amplified and sequenced in five reference isoates. Synonymous (short vertical lines) and non-synonymous (long vertical lines)mutations are marked. (<b>C</b>) Graphical representation of a sliding window plot of nucleotide diversity per site. Diversity (<b>π</b>) was calculated using DnaSP v5.10 with window length 400 bp and step size 25 bp. Maximum diversity (<b>π</b> = 0.024) was observed between nucleotide positions 389 and 1388 (hatched line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Invasion Gene Family Members", "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria", "parasite", "knowlesi normocyte binding protein Pknbpxa", "knowlesi invasion gene variants", "haplotyping 147 patient", "Pknbpxb allelic groups", "disease severity", "malaria elimination strategists", "World Health Organization guidelines", "pathogen", "infection", "knowlesi erythrocyte invasion genes", "Pknbpxb reference DNA sequences", "malaria list hyperparasitaemia"], "article_id"=>1139634, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Atique M. Ahmed", "Miguel M. Pinheiro", "Paul C. Divis", "Angela Siner", "Ramlah Zainudin", "Ing Tien Wong", "Chan Woon Lu", "Sarina K. Singh-Khaira", "Scott B. Millar", "Sean Lynch", "Matthias Willmann", "Balbir Singh", "Sanjeev Krishna", "Janet Cox-Singh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003086.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_P_knowlesi_Pknbpxa_organisation_and_diversity_/1139634", "title"=>"<i>P. knowlesi Pknbpxa</i> organisation and diversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 10:55:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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