Sensitivity and Specificity of Multiple Kato-Katz Thick Smears and a Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre- and Post-repeated-Praziquantel Treatment
Publication Date
September 11, 2014
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Poppy H. L. Lamberton, Narcis B. Kabatereine, David W. Oguttu, Alan Fenwick, et al
Volume
8
Issue
9
Pages
e3139
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003139
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25211217
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4161328
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25211217
Web of Science
000342796600029
Scopus
84907587231
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/sensitivity-specificity-multiple-katokatz-thick-smears-circulating-cathodic-antigen-test-schistosoma
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Sensitivity and Specificity of Multiple Kato-Katz Thick Smears and a Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre- and Post-repeated-Praziquantel Treatment", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Poppy H L", "last_name"=>"Lamberton", "scopus_author_id"=>"13805867000"}, {"first_name"=>"Narcis B.", "last_name"=>"Kabatereine", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701443866"}, {"first_name"=>"David W.", "last_name"=>"Oguttu", "scopus_author_id"=>"25823229300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Fenwick", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004545601"}, {"first_name"=>"Joanne P.", "last_name"=>"Webster", "scopus_author_id"=>"23040249800"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84907587231", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139", "issn"=>"19352735", "pui"=>"600082876", "isbn"=>"1935-2727", "pmid"=>"25211217", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907587231"}, "id"=>"028d29a1-d740-3ad1-b55d-39a5708d9fb0", "abstract"=>"Author Summary Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease infecting over 200 million people. It remains a major public health concern despite treatment of over 120 million people in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Accurate diagnostic methods are essential for monitoring drug efficacy and long-term control program success. The World Health Organization recommends two Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) from a single stool for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis to map prevalence and areas for control interventions. Although highly specific, Kato-Katzs are thought to be insensitive at low egg counts. The recently refined urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) has been proposed as a diagnostic alternative for mapping areas for interventions, and potentially for assessing drug efficacy. Over three years we assessed the accuracy of six Kato-Katzs and a single POC-CCA in detecting infections in Ugandan primary-school children at 11 time points with repeated praziquantel treatments. Our results demonstrate that two Kato-Katzs accurately detect S. mansoni infection pre-treatment, but at least three days of two Kato-Katzs per stool or one POC-CCA are required for annual monitoring and treatment evaluation and/or drug-efficacy studies. One POC-CCA may be more sensitive in measuring S. mansoni prevalence than six Kato-Katzs, but its accuracies for rigorous intensity measures are still to be proven.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sensitivity-specificity-multiple-katokatz-thick-smears-circulating-cathodic-antigen-test-schistosoma", "reader_count"=>64, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>17}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672366", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672367", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672368", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672370"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Two Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) from a single stool are currently recommended for diagnosing <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> infections to map areas for intervention. This ‘gold standard’ has low sensitivity at low infection intensities. The urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) is potentially more sensitive but how accurately they detect <i>S. mansoni</i> after repeated praziquantel treatments, their suitability for measuring drug efficacy and their correlation with egg counts remain to be fully understood. We compared the accuracies of one to six Kato-Katzs and one POC-CCA for the diagnosis of <i>S. mansoni</i> in primary-school children who have received zero to ten praziquantel treatments. We determined the impact each diagnostic approach may have on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and drug-efficacy findings.</p><p>Method/Principle Findings</p><p>In a high <i>S. mansoni</i> endemic area of Uganda, three days of consecutive stool samples were collected from primary school-aged children (six - 12 years) at five time-points in year one: baseline, one-week-post-, four-weeks-post-, six-months-post-, and six-months-one-week-post-praziquantel and three time-points in years two and three: pre-, one-week-post- and four-weeks-post-praziquantel-treatment/retreatment (n = 1065). Two Kato-Katzs were performed on each stool. In parallel, one urine sample was collected and a single POC-CCA evaluated per child at each time-point in year one (n = 367). At baseline, diagnosis by two Kato-Katzs (sensitivity = 98.6%) or one POC-CCA (sensitivity = 91.7%, specificity = 75.0%) accurately predicted <i>S. mansoni</i> infections. However, one year later, a minimum of three Kato-Katzs, and two years later, five Kato-Katzs were required for accurate diagnosis (sensitivity >90%) and drug-efficacy evaluation. The POC-CCA was as sensitive as six Kato-Katzs four-weeks-post and six-months-post-treatment, if trace readings were classified as positive.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Six Kato-Katzs (two/stool from three stools) and/or one POC-CCA are required for M&E or drug-efficacy studies. Although unable to measure egg reduction rates, one POC-CCA appears to be more sensitive than six Kato-Katzs at four-weeks-post-praziquantel (drug efficacy) and six-months-post-praziquantel (M&E).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167771, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sensitivity_and_Specificity_of_Multiple_Kato_Katz_Thick_Smears_and_a_Circulating_Cathodic_Antigen_Test_for_Schistosoma_mansoni_Diagnosis_Pre_and_Post_repeated_Praziquantel_Treatment/1167771", "title"=>"Sensitivity and Specificity of Multiple Kato-Katz Thick Smears and a Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> Diagnosis Pre- and Post-repeated-Praziquantel Treatment", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672356"], "description"=>"<p><i>S. mansoni</i> mean intensity in eggs per gram of stool (EPG) in comparison to the band strengths of a single urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (CCA) at five time-points, from (A) pre-treatment at baseline, (B) one-week-post-, (C) four-weeks-post-, (D) six-months-post- and (E) six-months-one-week-post-praziquantel treatment. Spearman's rank coefficients and significance values are given for each time point. Trace readings were included in the + category. NB y axes vary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167765, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_S_mansoni_arithmetic_mean_intensity_measured_by_six_Kato_Katzs_with_POC_CCA_band_strength_/1167765", "title"=>"Comparison of <i>S. mansoni</i> arithmetic mean intensity measured by six Kato-Katzs with POC-CCA band strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672326"], "description"=>"<p>The sensitivity of one to five Kato-Katz thick smears (1KK to 5KK) for diagnosing <i>S. mansoni</i> infections at a range of community arithmetic mean <i>S. mansoni</i> infection intensities (measured as eggs per gram of stool (EPG) from six Kato-Katz thick smears). <i>S. mansoni</i> infection intensities were measured at three primary schools, at 11 time points each, ranging from pre-treatment to two-years-four-weeks-post-praziquantel treatment. Lines are best fit linear lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167746, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_S_mansoni_arithmetic_mean_infection_intensity_on_sensitivity_of_one_to_five_Kato_Katzs_/1167746", "title"=>"Effect of <i>S. mansoni</i> arithmetic mean infection intensity on sensitivity of one to five Kato-Katzs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672339"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of (A) number of Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs), from one to six (1KK to 6KK) on the recorded prevalence of <i>S. mansoni</i> infection with multiple praziquantel treatments. All individuals were treated after sampling at pre, six-months, one-year and two-years. All individuals excreting more than 100 EPG at one-week and any infected children at all other time-points were re-treated. 95% confidence intervals are excluded for clarity. Difference in sensitivities between the current standard two Kato-Katzs and our ‘gold standard’ of six Kato-Katzs determined by the McNemar test is significant at all time-points except baseline. The effect of (B) diagnosis method using six Kato-Katzs or one point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA), with a trace counting as either a positive (POC-CCA-t+) or negative (POC-CCA-t−) on <i>S. mansoni</i> infection prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Difference in sensitivities between the POC-CCA and our ‘gold standard’ of six Kato-Katzs determined by the McNemar test: <sup>*</sup> significant for POC-CCA-t− or <sup>†</sup> significant POC-CCA-t+.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167759, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_diagnostic_technique_and_sampling_effort_on_S_mansoni_prevalence_measures_/1167759", "title"=>"Effect of diagnostic technique and sampling effort on <i>S. mansoni</i> prevalence measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672308"], "description"=>"<p>Final numbers of children who provided three stools for a total of six Kato-Katz thick smears (6KK) and one urine sample for a point-of-care circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) at each time-point. Final numbers and percentage female in parentheses. Totaling 1065 samples for Kato-Katz thick smears accuracy analyses and 367 for POC-CCA analyses over the whole study. Samples were collected pre-praziquantel treatment, one-week-post-praziquantel treatment (1 Wk-Post-Treat) and four-weeks-post-praziquantel treatment (4 Wks-Post-Treat) at four time points: Baseline, six months later, one year later and two years later.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167728, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recruitment_and_inclusion_of_primary_school_children_and_their_samples_in_the_study_/1167728", "title"=>"Recruitment and inclusion of primary-school children and their samples in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672320"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sensitivity and (B) Negative Predictive Values of one to five Kato-Katzs thick smears (1KK to 5KK) for <i>S. mansoni</i> diagnosis over 11 time-points using six Kato-Katzs as the ‘gold standard’. All individuals were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel after the start of the study (pre) and then again at six-months, one-year and two-years. All individuals providing stool samples with >100 eggs per gram (EPG) at one-week-post-praziquantel treatment and any infected children at all other time-points were re-treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel. 95% confidence intervals are excluded for clarity, but can be seen in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139#pntd-0003139-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167740, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensitivity_and_negative_predictive_values_of_one_to_five_Kato_Katzs_for_S_mansoni_diagnosis_/1167740", "title"=>"Sensitivity and negative predictive values of one to five Kato-Katzs for <i>S. mansoni</i> diagnosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672358"], "description"=>"<p>The accuracy of one to five Kato-Katz thick smears for detecting <i>S. mansoni</i> infection with prevalence reported for diagnosis using six Kato-Katz thick smears as the ‘gold standard’. There were 11 time-points where children were sampled over three years, from the complete dataset of children who each had six Kato-Katz thick smear readings (n = 1065). 95% confidence intervals are shown in parentheses. Prev = prevalence, Sens = sensitivity, Spec = specificity, NPV = negative predictive value.</p><p>The accuracy of one to five Kato-Katzs for detecting <i>S. mansoni</i> infection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167767, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_accuracy_of_one_to_five_Kato_Katzs_for_detecting_S_mansoni_infection_/1167767", "title"=>"The accuracy of one to five Kato-Katzs for detecting <i>S. mansoni</i> infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672359"], "description"=>"<p>One to six Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) and a single point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) (comparing if trace readings are counted as positive (POC-CCA-t+) or negative (POC-CCA-t−)) for detecting <i>S. mansoni</i> infections in primary-school children in Mayuge District, Uganda, comparing with either a ‘gold standard’ of six Kato-Katzs (upper half of the table) or with both six Kato-Katzs and one POC-CCA (lower half of the table) for diagnosis. Sample sizes are included in the timeline on the top row, with prevalence (as measured by the respective ‘gold standard’) and intensity from six Kato-Katzs. NB prevalence and mean infection intensities differ from <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139#pntd-0003139-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139#pntd-0003139-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 4A</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139#pntd-0003139-g005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a> as these, here, are calculated from individuals with six Kato-Katzs and POC-CCA results (n = 367), rather than just six Kato-Katzs (n = 1065) (<a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139#pntd-0003139-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>). 95% confidence intervals are shown in parentheses. Prev = prevalence, Sens = sensitivity, Spec = specificity, NPV = negative predictive value, PPV = positive predictive value.</p><p>The accuracy of one to six Kato-Katzs and one point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test for diagnosing <i>S. mansoni</i> infections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167768, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_accuracy_of_one_to_six_Kato_Katzs_and_one_point_of_care_circulating_cathodic_antigen_test_for_diagnosing_S_mansoni_infections_/1167768", "title"=>"The accuracy of one to six Kato-Katzs and one point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test for diagnosing <i>S. mansoni</i> infections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672357"], "description"=>"<p>Overall baseline prevalence (measured by six Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) and/or one rapid urine based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) if trace readings are counted as positive (POC-CCA-t+) or negative (POC-CCA-t−)) and intensities (arithmetic mean eggs per gram of stool) of helminth infections in three primary schools in Mayuge District, Uganda. CI = confidence interval, SE = standard error, na = not applicable. Infection intensity categories are as per World Health Organization guidelines <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139#pntd.0003139-World2\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>.</p><p>Baseline prevalence and intensities.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167766, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_prevalence_and_intensities_/1167766", "title"=>"Baseline prevalence and intensities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1672342"], "description"=>"<p>Data shown over multiple rounds of praziquantel treatments with standard error bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre", "cathodic antigen test", "praziquantel treatments", "sensitivity", "Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test", "drug efficacy", "measure egg reduction rates", "diagnosis", "Schistosoma mansoni infections"], "article_id"=>1167762, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Poppy H. L. Lamberton", "Narcis B. Kabatereine", "David W. Oguttu", "Alan Fenwick", "Joanne P. Webster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003139.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S_mansoni_intensity_measures_from_one_to_three_days_of_duplicate_Kato_Katz_thick_smears_/1167762", "title"=>"<i>S. mansoni</i> intensity measures from one to three days of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-11 02:44:45"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"65", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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