Effectiveness of Routine BCG Vaccination on Buruli Ulcer Disease: A Case-Control Study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo
Publication Date
January 08, 2015
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Richard Odame Phillips, Delphin Mavinga Phanzu, Marcus Beissner, Kossi Badziklou, et al
Volume
9
Issue
1
Pages
e3457
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003457
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25569674
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287572
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25569674
Web of Science
000349318100050
Scopus
84922219971
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/effectiveness-routine-bcg-vaccination-buruli-ulcer-disease-casecontrol-study-democratic-republic-con
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Effectiveness of Routine BCG Vaccination on Buruli Ulcer Disease: A Case-Control Study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Richard Odame", "last_name"=>"Phillips", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404241222"}, {"first_name"=>"Delphin Mavinga", "last_name"=>"Phanzu", "scopus_author_id"=>"14622040400"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcus", "last_name"=>"Beissner", "scopus_author_id"=>"26427909600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kossi", "last_name"=>"Badziklou", "scopus_author_id"=>"37861115400"}, {"first_name"=>"Elysée Kalundieko", "last_name"=>"Luzolo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56503936400"}, {"first_name"=>"Fred Stephen", "last_name"=>"Sarfo", "scopus_author_id"=>"25951730100"}, {"first_name"=>"Wemboo Afiwa", "last_name"=>"Halatoko", "scopus_author_id"=>"55584392300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yaw", "last_name"=>"Amoako", "scopus_author_id"=>"44960986700"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Frimpong", "scopus_author_id"=>"56168422200"}, {"first_name"=>"Abass Mohammed", "last_name"=>"Kabiru", "scopus_author_id"=>"56503876200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ebekalisai", "last_name"=>"Piten", "scopus_author_id"=>"36548962900"}, {"first_name"=>"Issaka", "last_name"=>"Maman", "scopus_author_id"=>"49961833000"}, {"first_name"=>"Bawimodom", "last_name"=>"Bidjada", "scopus_author_id"=>"55584548000"}, {"first_name"=>"Adjaho", "last_name"=>"Koba", "scopus_author_id"=>"56503688700"}, {"first_name"=>"Koffi Somenou", "last_name"=>"Awoussi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55583894200"}, {"first_name"=>"Basile", "last_name"=>"Kobara", "scopus_author_id"=>"55584336500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jörg", "last_name"=>"Nitschke", "scopus_author_id"=>"16646532100"}, {"first_name"=>"Franz Xaver", "last_name"=>"Wiedemann", "scopus_author_id"=>"36702301700"}, {"first_name"=>"Abiba Banla", "last_name"=>"Kere", "scopus_author_id"=>"48761478300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ohene", "last_name"=>"Adjei", "scopus_author_id"=>"9334221600"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Löscher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006461251"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernhard", "last_name"=>"Fleischer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102488623"}, {"first_name"=>"Gisela", "last_name"=>"Bretzel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004082862"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl Heinz", "last_name"=>"Herbinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506604465"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"601976075", "issn"=>"19352735", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84922219971", "pmid"=>"25569674", "sgr"=>"84922219971"}, "id"=>"a10631ff-00e5-3dc3-8881-4115cb91d88f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis) also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD). The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY: The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.24), age (p = 0.96), and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07) did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effectiveness-routine-bcg-vaccination-buruli-ulcer-disease-casecontrol-study-democratic-republic-con", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1863104"], "description"=>"<p>NA Not applicable. No prevalence was shown if n <5.</p>a<p>Cases were defined as patients affected by Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD) whose diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by testing with microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and culture.</p><p>Any case had a least one positive test result.</p>b<p>Controls were defined as healthy persons having a close relationship with the CA.</p>c<p>AG, age group in years (y).</p>d<p>BCG, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.</p><p>The only available vaccine against mycobacterial diseases, which contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (<i>Mycobacterium bovis</i>). In our study, the status after BCG vaccination was assessed from all cases and controls of the study population by controlling both sides of the shoulder, if they presented a typical “BCG scar”. Studies that evaluated the presence or absence of BCG scars to determine vaccination status reported that scars develop in most vaccinated persons.</p>e<p>Fisher's exact test was used if at least one cell of contingency table was below 5.</p><p>Baseline data of cases<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457#nt102\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup> and controls<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457#nt104\" target=\"_blank\">b</a></sup> from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Ghana, and Togo, collected from February 2010 through April 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Democratic Republic", "mycobacterial diseases", "BCG scar", "BCG vaccine strains", "neighbors.Principal FindingsAfter stratification", "BCG vaccination", "bud", "Buruli Ulcer Disease", "Routine BCG Vaccination", "ii"], "article_id"=>1286462, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard Odame Phillips", "Delphin Mavinga Phanzu", "Marcus Beissner", "Kossi Badziklou", "Elysée Kalundieko Luzolo", "Fred Stephen Sarfo", "Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko", "Yaw Amoako", "Michael Frimpong", "Abass Mohammed Kabiru", "Ebekalisai Piten", "Issaka Maman", "Bawimodom Bidjada", "Adjaho Koba", "Koffi Somenou Awoussi", "Basile Kobara", "Jörg Nitschke", "Franz Xaver Wiedemann", "Abiba Banla Kere", "Ohene Adjei", "Thomas Löscher", "Bernhard Fleischer", "Gisela Bretzel", "Karl-Heinz Herbinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_data_of_cases_a_and_controls_b_from_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_DR_Congo_Ghana_and_Togo_collected_from_February_2010_through_April_2013_/1286462", "title"=>"Baseline data of cases<sup>a</sup> and controls<sup>b</sup> from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Ghana, and Togo, collected from February 2010 through April 2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-01-08 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1863113"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (<i>Mycobacterium bovis</i>) also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD). The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD.</p><p>Methodology</p><p>The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors.</p><p>Principal Findings</p><p>After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (<i>p</i> = 0.31), sex (<i>p</i> = 0.24), age (<i>p</i> = 0.96), and presence of a BCG scar (<i>p</i> = 0.07) did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Democratic Republic", "mycobacterial diseases", "BCG scar", "BCG vaccine strains", "neighbors.Principal FindingsAfter stratification", "BCG vaccination", "bud", "Buruli Ulcer Disease", "Routine BCG Vaccination", "ii"], "article_id"=>1286465, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard Odame Phillips", "Delphin Mavinga Phanzu", "Marcus Beissner", "Kossi Badziklou", "Elysée Kalundieko Luzolo", "Fred Stephen Sarfo", "Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko", "Yaw Amoako", "Michael Frimpong", "Abass Mohammed Kabiru", "Ebekalisai Piten", "Issaka Maman", "Bawimodom Bidjada", "Adjaho Koba", "Koffi Somenou Awoussi", "Basile Kobara", "Jörg Nitschke", "Franz Xaver Wiedemann", "Abiba Banla Kere", "Ohene Adjei", "Thomas Löscher", "Bernhard Fleischer", "Gisela Bretzel", "Karl-Heinz Herbinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effectiveness_of_Routine_BCG_Vaccination_on_Buruli_Ulcer_Disease_A_Case_Control_Study_in_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Congo_Ghana_and_Togo_/1286465", "title"=>"Effectiveness of Routine BCG Vaccination on Buruli Ulcer Disease: A Case-Control Study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-01-08 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1863105"], "description"=>"<p>NA Not applicable. No prevalence was shown if n <5.</p>a<p>BCG, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.</p><p>The only available vaccine against mycobacterial diseases, which contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (<i>Mycobacterium bovis</i>). In our study, the status after BCG vaccination was assessed from all cases and controls of the study population by controlling both sides of the shoulders, if they presented a typical “BCG scar” caused by intracutaneous BCG vaccination. Studies that evaluated the presence or absence of BCG scars to determine vaccination status reported that scars develop in most vaccinated persons.</p>b<p>Cases were defined as patients affected by Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD) whose diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by testing with microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and culture.</p><p>Every case had a least one positive test result for BUD.</p>c<p>Categories of BUD.</p><p>According to WHO, the categories of BUD were defined as follows: Category I correspond to single lesions with <5 cm in diameter; Category II correspond to single lesions between 5 and 15 cm in diameter; Category III correspond to single lesions with >15 cm in diameter, multiple lesions, or osteomyelitis.</p>d<p>AG, age group in years (y).</p>e<p>Fisher's exact test was used if at least one cell of contingency table was below 5.</p><p>BCG<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457#nt110\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup> vaccination and cases<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457#nt112\" target=\"_blank\">b</a></sup> of BUD category<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457#nt114\" target=\"_blank\">c</a></sup> I and category<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457#nt114\" target=\"_blank\">c</a></sup> II/III from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Ghana, and Togo, collected from February 2010 through April 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Democratic Republic", "mycobacterial diseases", "BCG scar", "BCG vaccine strains", "neighbors.Principal FindingsAfter stratification", "BCG vaccination", "bud", "Buruli Ulcer Disease", "Routine BCG Vaccination", "ii"], "article_id"=>1286463, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard Odame Phillips", "Delphin Mavinga Phanzu", "Marcus Beissner", "Kossi Badziklou", "Elysée Kalundieko Luzolo", "Fred Stephen Sarfo", "Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko", "Yaw Amoako", "Michael Frimpong", "Abass Mohammed Kabiru", "Ebekalisai Piten", "Issaka Maman", "Bawimodom Bidjada", "Adjaho Koba", "Koffi Somenou Awoussi", "Basile Kobara", "Jörg Nitschke", "Franz Xaver Wiedemann", "Abiba Banla Kere", "Ohene Adjei", "Thomas Löscher", "Bernhard Fleischer", "Gisela Bretzel", "Karl-Heinz Herbinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BCG_a_vaccination_and_cases_b_of_BUD_category_c_I_and_category_c_II_III_from_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_DR_Congo_Ghana_and_Togo_collected_from_February_2010_through_April_2013_/1286463", "title"=>"BCG<sup>a</sup> vaccination and cases<sup>b</sup> of BUD category<sup>c</sup> I and category<sup>c</sup> II/III from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Ghana, and Togo, collected from February 2010 through April 2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-01-08 03:26:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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