Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is a Potent Risk Factor for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Enhancing Local and Systemic Inflammation Associated with Strong Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders
Publication Date
February 10, 2015
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Luisina I. Onofrio, Alfredo R. Arocena, Augusto F. Paroli, María E. Cabalén, et al
Volume
9
Issue
2
Pages
e0003464
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003464
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25668433
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323252
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25668433
Web of Science
000350992500021
Scopus
84924036768
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-potent-risk-factor-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-enhancing-local-systemic
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is a Potent Risk Factor for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Enhancing Local and Systemic Inflammation Associated with Strong Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Luisina I.", "last_name"=>"Onofrio", "scopus_author_id"=>"56003326100"}, {"first_name"=>"Alfredo R.", "last_name"=>"Arocena", "scopus_author_id"=>"36660555400"}, {"first_name"=>"Augusto F.", "last_name"=>"Paroli", "scopus_author_id"=>"56003216100"}, {"first_name"=>"María E.", "last_name"=>"Cabalén", "scopus_author_id"=>"55904887600"}, {"first_name"=>"Marta C.", "last_name"=>"Andrada", "scopus_author_id"=>"56536493500"}, {"first_name"=>"Roxana C.", "last_name"=>"Cano", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006341700"}, {"first_name"=>"Susana", "last_name"=>"Gea", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701720719"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"602601657", "issn"=>"19352735", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84924036768", "pmid"=>"25668433", "sgr"=>"84924036768"}, "id"=>"ef7ba645-426f-37d0-8bcc-04a592c6c1e5", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The immune mechanisms underlying experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and more interestingly, the effect of T. cruzi chronic infection on the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder are not completely understood.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated immunological parameters in male C57BL/6 wild type and TLR4 deficient mice fed with a standard, low fat diet, LFD (3% fat) as control group, or a medium fat diet, MFD (14% fat) in order to induce NASH, or mice infected intraperitoneally with 100 blood-derived trypomastigotes of Tulahuen strain and also fed with LFD (I+LFD) or MFD (I+MFD) for 24 weeks. We demonstrated that MFD by itself was able to induce NASH in WT mice and that parasitic infection induced marked metabolic changes with reduction of body weight and steatosis revealed by histological studies. The I+MFD group also improved insulin resistance, demonstrated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) analysis; although parasitic infection increased the triglycerides and cholesterol plasma levels. In addition, hepatic M1 inflammatory macrophages and cytotoxic T cells showed intracellular inflammatory cytokines which were associated with high levels of IL6, IFNγ and IL17 plasmatic cytokines and CCL2 chemokine. These findings correlated with an increase in hepatic parasite load in I+MFD group demonstrated by qPCR assays. The recruitment of hepatic B lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells was enhanced by MFD, and it was intensified by parasitic infection. These results were TLR4 signaling dependent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species and peroxinitrites produced by liver inflammatory leukocytes of MFD group were also exacerbated by parasitic infection in our NASH model.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We highlight that a medium fat diet by itself is able to induce steatohepatitis. Our results also suggest a synergic effect between damage associated with molecular patterns generated during NASH and parasitic infection, revealing an intense cross-talk between metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, and the immune system. Thus, T. cruzi infection must be considered as an additional risk factor since exacerbates the inflammation and accelerates the development of hepatic injury.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-potent-risk-factor-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-enhancing-local-systemic", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892929"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Liver tissue from all groups was subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E at 400x) and Sudan Black IV staining (A, Insert) The arrows represent inflammatory foci. Scale bar = 20 μm. (<b>B)</b> Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents were determined and expressed as mg/g of liver tissue of WT groups. (<b>C)</b> The numbers of IHLs were similar in mice of both genotypes with infection but the degree of steatohepatitis was significantly higher in MFD vs. LFD WT mice (*p < 0.05). All results are shown at 24 weeks of treatment and were representative of at least three independent experiments. Data are shown as mean ± SEM of more than 4 mice per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hepatic_inflammation_and_steatosis_in_WT_and_TLR4_mice_with_or_without_T_cruzi_infection_/1305420", "title"=>"Hepatic inflammation and steatosis in WT and TLR4-/- mice with or without <i>T</i>. <i>cruzi</i> infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892924"], "description"=>"<p>Metabolic parameters were measured after a 10-h fasting in mice on either MFD, LFD, I+MFD or I+LFD groups of WT and TLR4-/- mice at 4, 12 or 24 weeks, including: (<b>A)</b> Body weight ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. LFD at 4 and 24 weeks in WT; LFD vs. I+LFD **p < 0.01 at 12 and 24 weeks WT and ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. I+MFD at 24 weeks in WT. (<b>B)</b> Changes in plasma HOMA-IR in WT mice: **p < 0.01 MFD vs. LFD at 4 weeks, **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. I+MFD at 4 weeks and MFD vs. LFD at 24 weeks, *p < 0.05 MFD vs. LFD at 12 weeks; Changes in plasma HOMA-IR in TLR4-/- mice: *p < 0.05 LFD vs. I+LFD at 4 weeks, ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. LFD, I+LFD and I+MFD at 12 weeks. (<b>C)</b> Plasma triglycerides concentrations in WT mice: ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. LFD at 4 weeks, **p < 0.01 MFD vs. I+MFD at 4 weeks. <b>(D)</b> Plasma cholesterol concentrations in WT mice: ***p < 0.001 I+LFD vs. I+MFD at 4 weeks; **p < 0.01 MFD vs. LFD and I+LFD vs. I+MFD at 12 weeks; ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. LFD at 24 weeks, *p < 0.05 LFD vs. I+LFD at 24 weeks and **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. I+MFD at 24 weeks. The analysis in TLR4-/- groups: *p < 0.05 I+LFD vs. I+MFD and MFD vs. I+MFD at 24 weeks. n > 10 for each mice group were analyzed at all times studied. Data are shown as mean ± SEM of a representative assay from three independent experiments. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant using Two-way ANOVA test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolic_abnormalities_associated_with_diet_induced_overweight_and_infection_with_T_cruzi_/1305415", "title"=>"Metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced overweight and infection with <i>T</i>. <i>cruzi</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892938"], "description"=>"<p>The cytokine production was quantified by ELISA in plasma collected from all groups of mice at 24 weeks of treatment with LFD, MFD, I+LFD or I+MFD. <b>(A)</b> WT CCL2: **p < 0.01 MFD vs. LFD and *p < 0.05 I+LFD vs. LFD; IL6: *p < 0.05 MFD vs. LFD, **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. LFD, ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. I+MFD and **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. I+MFD; IFNγ: *p < 0.05 MFD vs. LFD, **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. LFD, **p < 0.01 MFD vs. I+MFD and *p < 0.05 I+LFD vs. I+MFD; IL17: **p < 0.01 MFD vs. LFD, **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. LFD, ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. I+MFD and *p < 0.05 I+LFD vs. I+MFD. <b>(B)</b> TLR4-/- CCL2: *p < 0.05 I+LFD vs. LFD; IFNγ: *p < 0.05 MFD vs. I+MFD; IL17: **p < 0.01 I+LFD vs. LFD and ***p < 0.001 MFD vs. I+MFD. All data are shown as mean ± SEM of four to eight mice per group from one experiment representative of two performed. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant using Two-way ANOVA test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305428, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_outburst_of_systemic_inflammatory_cytokines_is_highly_dependent_on_TLR4_signaling_and_increased_by_parasite_infection_/1305428", "title"=>"The outburst of systemic inflammatory cytokines is highly dependent on TLR4 signaling and increased by parasite infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892935"], "description"=>"<p>IHLs from different groups of mice obtained at 24 weeks were stained with anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-TNFα, anti-IFNγ, anti-IL17, anti-IL10, anti-CCL2, anti-CCL3 and anti-CD107 Abs. <b>(A)</b> The absolute numbers of CD3<sup>+</sup> and <b>(B)</b> the absolute numbers of CD3<sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD3<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> cells in liver are indicated. <b>(C)</b> Percentage of TNFα and IFNγ producing CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells in liver of WT are shown by intracellular staining. Percentage of <b>(D)</b> IL17 and <b>(E)</b> IL10 producing CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells in liver of WT are shown by intracellular staining. <b>(F)</b> Percentages of CCL2 and CCL3 producing CD3+ T cells in liver of WT are shown by intracellular staining. <b>(G)</b> Percentages of CD107a<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells. IHLs from all groups were cultured in the presence of PMA plus ionomycin and monensin for 5 h and stained with corresponding antibodies. Data are shown as mean ± SEM of more than 4 mice per group from one experiment representative of three performed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305425, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_local_T_cell_response_is_induced_by_MFD_and_exacerbated_by_T_cruzi_infection_/1305425", "title"=>"The local T cell response is induced by MFD and exacerbated by <i>T</i>. <i>cruzi</i> infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892932"], "description"=>"<p>IHLs from all groups of mice were purified at 24 weeks and then stained with anti-F4/80, anti-CD206 anti-CD68 Abs. <b>(A)</b> The absolute number of F4/80<sup>+</sup> cells of phenotype M1 (CD206<sup>-</sup>CD68<sup>+</sup>) and M2 (CD206<sup>+</sup>CD68<sup>-</sup>) are indicated. <b>(B)</b> The CD36 expression, after gating on F4/80 is showed. <b>(C)</b> Fold increase of percentages of CCL2- and CCL3-producing F4/80<sup>+</sup> cells in liver of WT and TLR4-/- respect to LFD group. Cells were gated on F4/80 vs. side scatter dot plots. These assays were performed by flow cytometry and shown as mean ± SEM of six mice from one experiment representative of four performed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305423, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>229, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_M1_M2_markers_and_CD36_expression_from_WT_and_TLR4_mouse_liver_macrophages_/1305423", "title"=>"Expression of M1/M2 markers and CD36 expression from WT and TLR4-/- mouse liver macrophages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892965", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892966", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892967", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892968", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892969", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892970", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892971"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The immune mechanisms underlying experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and more interestingly, the effect of <i>T. cruzi</i> chronic infection on the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder are not completely understood.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>We evaluated immunological parameters in male C57BL/6 wild type and TLR4 deficient mice fed with a standard, low fat diet, LFD (3% fat) as control group, or a medium fat diet, MFD (14% fat) in order to induce NASH, or mice infected intraperitoneally with 100 blood-derived trypomastigotes of Tulahuen strain and also fed with LFD (I+LFD) or MFD (I+MFD) for 24 weeks. We demonstrated that MFD by itself was able to induce NASH in WT mice and that parasitic infection induced marked metabolic changes with reduction of body weight and steatosis revealed by histological studies. The I+MFD group also improved insulin resistance, demonstrated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) analysis; although parasitic infection increased the triglycerides and cholesterol plasma levels. In addition, hepatic M1 inflammatory macrophages and cytotoxic T cells showed intracellular inflammatory cytokines which were associated with high levels of IL6, IFNγ and IL17 plasmatic cytokines and CCL2 chemokine. These findings correlated with an increase in hepatic parasite load in I+MFD group demonstrated by qPCR assays. The recruitment of hepatic B lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells was enhanced by MFD, and it was intensified by parasitic infection. These results were TLR4 signaling dependent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species and peroxinitrites produced by liver inflammatory leukocytes of MFD group were also exacerbated by parasitic infection in our NASH model.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>We highlight that a medium fat diet by itself is able to induce steatohepatitis. Our results also suggest a synergic effect between damage associated with molecular patterns generated during NASH and parasitic infection, revealing an intense cross-talk between metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, and the immune system. Thus, <i>T. cruzi</i> infection must be considered as an additional risk factor since exacerbates the inflammation and accelerates the development of hepatic injury.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305455, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trypanosoma_cruzi_Infection_Is_a_Potent_Risk_Factor_for_Non_alcoholic_Steatohepatitis_Enhancing_Local_and_Systemic_Inflammation_Associated_with_Strong_Oxidative_Stress_and_Metabolic_Disorders/1305455", "title"=>"<i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i> Infection Is a Potent Risk Factor for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Enhancing Local and Systemic Inflammation Associated with Strong Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892941"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Parasitemia was determined at different time post <i>T</i>. <i>cruzi</i> infection in I+LFD and I+MFD WT mice, n = 10 per group. <b>(B)</b> Quantitative assessment of the parasite load by q-PCR in the liver of infected groups. Parasite quantification in DNA samples of I+LFD and I+MFD groups was performed amplifying a TCZ <i>T</i>. <i>cruzi</i> satellite sequence at 24 weeks post treatment. The relative load of parasites/liver was normalized against the eEF2 housekeeping gene control. Two positive samples, two negative samples and non-template DNA were included in every q-PCR. All data are shown as mean ± SEM of four mice per group from one experiment representative of two performed. A p<0.05 was considered significant using two-tailed T test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305431, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Medium_fat_diet_leads_to_increased_parasitemia_and_parasite_load_in_the_liver_/1305431", "title"=>"Medium-fat diet leads to increased parasitemia and parasite load in the liver.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892940"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> IHLs from all groups WT were stimulated with PMA (30 mg/mL) and incubated with H2DCDFA (10uM) for 30 minutes at 37°C and Intrahepatic cells were then stained with anti-Gr-1, anti-F4/80. The percentage of ROS in Gr-1<sup>+</sup> and F4/80<sup>+</sup> cells was measured by flow cytometry and the results are shown as mean ± SEM of six mice from one experiment representative of two performed. Statistical significance determined by one-way ANOVA test. <b>(B)</b> Expression of p47<sup>phox</sup> in F4/80<sup>+</sup> cells. IHLs from different groups of mice were stimulated with Con A 48h and then stained with anti-F4/80 FITC, anti-p47<sup>phox</sup>/Alexa Fluor 555 Abs and then visualized using confocal microscopy. <b>(C)</b> Expression of tyrosine nitration in CD3<sup>+</sup> T cells. IHLs from different groups of mice were stimulated with Con A 48h and then stained with anti-CD3 FITC and anti-TN/Alexa Fluor 647 Abs, and visualized using a FV300 Olympus confocal microscope. Scale bar = 10 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305430, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reactive_oxygen_species_and_peroxinitrites_are_produced_by_liver_inflammatory_leukocytes_induced_by_MFD_and_exacerbated_by_parasite_infection_/1305430", "title"=>"Reactive oxygen species and peroxinitrites are produced by liver inflammatory leukocytes induced by MFD and exacerbated by parasite infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1892937"], "description"=>"<p>IHLs from different groups of mice were stained with anti-CD19, anti-CD11c, anti-CD3, anti-NK1.1, anti-CD107 and anti-IFNγ. <b>(A)</b> The absolute numbers of CD19<sup>+</sup>, <b>(B)</b> the absolute number of CD11c<sup>hi</sup> in liver and <b>(C)</b> the absolute number of NK and NKT cells are indicated. <b>(D)</b> Percentage of CD3<sup>-</sup> NK1.1<sup>+</sup> CD107a<sup>+</sup> cells. IHLs from all groups were cultured in the presence of PMA plus ionomycin and monensin for 5 h and stained with corresponding antibodies. Data are shown as mean ± SEM of more than 4 mice per group from one experiment representative of three performed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal microscopy analysis", "Potent Risk Factor", "Metabolic Disorders BackgroundThe", "cytotoxic T cells", "hepatic B lymphocytes", "wt", "TLR 4", "cholesterol plasma levels", "ifn", "57BL", "Systemic Inflammation Associated", "hepatic M 1", "Insulin resistance", "nash", "lfd", "nk", "Trypanosoma cruzi infection", "infection", "Strong Oxidative Stress", "hepatic parasite load", "Homeostasis Model Assessment", "Reactive oxygen species", "CCL 2 chemokine", "diet", "mfd", "IL 17 plasmatic cytokines"], "article_id"=>1305427, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luisina I. Onofrio", "Alfredo R. Arocena", "Augusto F. Paroli", "María E. Cabalén", "Marta C. Andrada", "Roxana C. Cano", "Susana Gea"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003464.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_recruitment_of_B_lymphocytes_dendritic_cells_and_NK_cells_in_liver_is_induced_by_MFD_and_increased_by_parasite_infection_/1305427", "title"=>"The recruitment of B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and NK cells in liver is induced by MFD and increased by parasite infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-10 03:00:05"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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