Artificial Warthog Burrows Used to Sample Adult and Immature Tsetse (Glossina spp) in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe
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{"title"=>"Artificial Warthog Burrows Used to Sample Adult and Immature Tsetse (Glossina spp) in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John W.", "last_name"=>"Hargrove", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004979791"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Odwell", "last_name"=>"Muzari", "scopus_author_id"=>"35387010600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928782660", "pmid"=>"25786253", "sgr"=>"84928782660", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19352735", "pui"=>"604101473"}, "id"=>"8466f6eb-d185-3a71-92ca-1b4f84c1252c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp), vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied - but little is known about larviposition in the field.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwe's Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larviposit, if oocyte sizes indicated >95% pregnancy completion. Perinatal flies were defined as full-term pregnant if there was a late third instar larva in utero, or postpartum if the uterus was empty. All other females were defined as pre-full-term pregnant (pre-FT). Of 845 G. m. morsitans captured, 91% (765) were female and 295/724 (41%) of females dissected were perinatal flies. By contrast, of 2805 G. pallidipes captured only 71% (2003) were female and only 33% (596/1825) of females were perinatal. Among all perinatal females 67% (596/891) were G. pallidipes. Conversely, in burrows not fitted with traps - such that flies were free to come and go - 1834 (59%) of pupae deposited were G. m. morsitans and only 1297 (41%) were G. pallidipes. Thus, while more full-term pregnant G. pallidipes enter burrows, greater proportions of G. m. morsitans larviposit in them, reflecting a greater discrimination among G. pallidipes in choosing larviposition sites. Catches of males and pre-FT females increased strongly with temperatures above 32°C, indicating that these flies used burrows as refuges from high ambient temperatures. Conversely, catches of perinatal females changed little with maximum temperature but declined from late September through November: females may anticipate that burrows will be inundated during the forthcoming wet season. Ovarian age distributions of perinatal and pre-FT females were similar, consistent with all ages of females larvipositing in burrows with similar probability.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Artificial warthog burrows provide a novel method for collecting tsetse pupae, studying tsetse behaviour at larviposition, assessing the physiological status of female tsetse and their larvae, and of improving understanding of the physiological dynamics of terminal pregnancy, and population dynamics generally, with a view to improving methods of trypanosomiasis control.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/artificial-warthog-burrows-used-sample-adult-immature-tsetse-glossina-spp-zambezi-valley-zimbabwe", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Uganda"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958897"], "description"=>"<p>Diurnal distribution of daily catches (<i>n</i>) of pre-full-term-pregnancy (Pre-FT) and perinatal <i>G</i>. <i>m</i>. <i>morsitans</i> (A, B, C) and <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i> (D, E, F) from 20 artificial warthog burrows (sites 1 to 5) deployed at Rekomitjie Research Station, September—November 1998.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341536, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diurnal_variation_in_catches_of_female_tsetse_from_artificial_warthog_burrows_/1341536", "title"=>"Diurnal variation in catches of female tsetse from artificial warthog burrows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958898"], "description"=>"<p>Ovarian age distributions of female <i>G</i>. <i>m</i>. <i>morsitans</i> (A) and <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i> (B) captured in all artificial warthog burrows September—November 1998. Ovarian category zero flies, which cannot be in the perinatal group, have been omitted. Postpartum flies were assigned to the ovarian stage that they had just completed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341537, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ages_of_female_tsetse_caught_in_artificial_warthog_burrows_/1341537", "title"=>"Ages of female tsetse caught in artificial warthog burrows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958899"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution by site and species. Percentages refer to distribution between species.</p><p>The distribution of tsetse puparia collected from 16 artificial warthog burrows (sites 6 to 9) at Rekomitjie Research Station, 28 August – 8 November 1998.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341538, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_tsetse_puparia_collected_from_16_artificial_warthog_burrows_sites_6_to_9_at_Rekomitjie_Research_Station_28_August_8211_8_November_1998_/1341538", "title"=>"The distribution of tsetse puparia collected from 16 artificial warthog burrows (sites 6 to 9) at Rekomitjie Research Station, 28 August – 8 November 1998.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958900"], "description"=>"<p>The effects of calendar date (t) and burrow siting on the numbers of tsetse puparia collected from trays placed in 16 burrows at sites 6 to 9 at Rekomitjie Research Station, 28 August—8 November 1998. The dependent variable was loge(n+1) where n was the number of puparia collected per day. Site 6 was used as the reference for estimating site effects. R2 for the models were 0.62 and 0.49 for G. m. morsitans and G. pallidipes, respectively.</p><p>Experiment 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341539, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_/1341539", "title"=>"Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958901"], "description"=>"<p>The dependent variable was log<sub>e</sub>(<i>n</i>+1) where <i>n</i> was the number of flies captured per day.</p><p>The effects of calendar date (<i>t</i> and <i>t</i><sup>2</sup>) and maximum temperature (<i>Tmax</i>) on daily catches of male <i>G</i>. <i>m</i>. <i>morsitans</i> and <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i>, and females that were either pre-full-term pregnancy (pre-FT) or perinatal, from a trap inserted into the entrances of 20 burrows at sites 1 to 5 at Rekomitjie Research Station, 8 September – 25 November 1998.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341540, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effects_of_calendar_date_t_and_t_2_and_maximum_temperature_Tmax_on_daily_catches_of_male_G_m_morsitans_and_G_pallidipes_and_females_that_were_either_pre_full_term_pregnancy_pre_FT_or_perinatal_from_a_trap_inserted_into_the_entrances_of_20_burrows_at_/1341540", "title"=>"The effects of calendar date (<i>t</i> and <i>t</i><sup>2</sup>) and maximum temperature (<i>Tmax</i>) on daily catches of male <i>G</i>. <i>m</i>. <i>morsitans</i> and <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i>, and females that were either pre-full-term pregnancy (pre-FT) or perinatal, from a trap inserted into the entrances of 20 burrows at sites 1 to 5 at Rekomitjie Research Station, 8 September – 25 November 1998.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958892"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed lines indicate the frame of the box-shaped trap that could be inserted into the entrance of the burrow. The trap frame was made from 8-gauge wire and was covered with black netting of fine cloth fabric. The trap fills the mouth of the burrow, but has an opening allowing entry of flies into the trap. Flies entering the burrow flew under the lip of the trap and were retained when they headed towards the light. When the trap was not in place, female flies could deposit their larvae in the plastic trays, which were half-filled with sand, on top of which was placed a <i>c</i>. 2cm layer of leaf litter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341531, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Section_through_an_artificial_warthog_burrow_/1341531", "title"=>"Section through an artificial warthog burrow.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958893"], "description"=>"<p>Daily maximum temperatures (A) and mean daily relative humidity (B) recorded from an automatic meteorological station at Rekomitjie Research Station, September—November 1998. Maximum temperatures were also recorded from a mercury thermometer in a Stevenson screen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341532, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meteorological_conditions_at_Rekomitjie_/1341532", "title"=>"Meteorological conditions at Rekomitjie.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958894"], "description"=>"<p>Mean numbers of <i>G</i>. <i>m</i>. <i>morsitans</i> and <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i> puparia collected daily from four burrows at site 7, Rekomitjie Research Station between 25 August and 21 October 1998.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341533, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changing_rates_of_pupal_deposition_in_artificial_warthog_burrows_/1341533", "title"=>"Changing rates of pupal deposition in artificial warthog burrows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958895"], "description"=>"<p>Changes with time and daily maximum temperature in the numbers of pre-full-term-pregnancy (Pre-FT: A, C) and perinatal (B, D) female <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i> captured per day in artificial warthog burrows at sites 1 to 5 at Rekomitjie Research Station. All data transformed to log<sub>e</sub>(<i>n</i>+1). Data shown for period 8 September to 7 November 1998: thereafter there were many zero catches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341534, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_of_tsetse_from_artificial_warthog_burrows_/1341534", "title"=>"Catches of tsetse from artificial warthog burrows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1958896"], "description"=>"<p>Catches of male, and of pre-FT and perinatal female, <i>G</i>. <i>pallidipes</i> from artificial warthog burrows, predicted using the model in <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565#pntd.0003565.t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>, assuming a constant daily maximum temperature of 37.5°C. The predicted catches were also used to estimate the proportions of perinatal flies among catches of females, and the proportions of females in the whole catch, and among pre-FT flies assumed to be using burrows as a refuge from high temperatures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warthog burrows", "instar larva", "Artificial Warthog Burrows", "trypanosomiasis control", "tsetse behaviour", "terminal pregnancy", "Zimbabwe BackgroundThe biology", "pallidipe", "morsitans larviposit", "Adult females", "Glossina spp", "Immature Tsetse", "Sample Adult", "ambient temperatures", "Population Dynamics", "845 G", "oocyte sizes", "2805 G", "perinatal females", "tsetse pupae", "Zambezi Valley", "adult tsetse", "Ovarian age distributions", "larviposition sites", "novel method", "females larvipositing"], "article_id"=>1341535, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["John W. Hargrove", "M. Odwell Muzari"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003565.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_catches_of_tsetse_from_artificial_warthog_burrows_/1341535", "title"=>"Predicted catches of tsetse from artificial warthog burrows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-18 04:58:33"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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