Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy
Publication Date
August 12, 2015
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Inaki Tirados, Johan Esterhuizen, Vanja Kovacic, T. N. Clement Mangwiro, et al
Volume
9
Issue
8
Pages
e0003822
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003822
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26267814
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580652
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26267814
Web of Science
000360708200048
Scopus
84928791450
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/tsetse-control-gambian-sleeping-sickness-implications-control-strategy
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Tsetse control and Gambian sleeping sickness; implications for control strategy", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Inaki", "last_name"=>"Tirados", "scopus_author_id"=>"15726845700"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan", "last_name"=>"Esterhuizen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55898728100"}, {"first_name"=>"Vanja", "last_name"=>"Kovacic", "scopus_author_id"=>"56008933800"}, {"first_name"=>"T. N.Clement", "last_name"=>"Mangwiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506126428"}, {"first_name"=>"Glyn A.", "last_name"=>"Vale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006061927"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian", "last_name"=>"Hastings", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006785053"}, {"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Solano", "scopus_author_id"=>"55145769000"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Lehane", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005720726"}, {"first_name"=>"Steve J.", "last_name"=>"Torr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004101045"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84928791450", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26267814", "issn"=>"19352735", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928791450", "pui"=>"605833668"}, "id"=>"20cf567f-437f-32bb-b12b-35dfa31a0591", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT) outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2). In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.\\n\\nINTERPRETATION: The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment), covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures). One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tsetse-control-gambian-sleeping-sickness-implications-control-strategy", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Mathematics"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sudan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Uganda"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210823"], "description"=>"<p>A. For graph A, predicted declines were generated using the simulation model Tsetse Muse. For graph B, the Catch Index is the mean daily catch (+LSD) from traps for each month post-deployment of targets (Months 1–6) expressed as a percentage of the mean catch for the three months prior to deployment (Month 0). The pre-deployment mean catches were 3.1 (2.76–3.48, 95%CI) for Big Chamaunga, 28.2 (22.44–35.31) for Manga and 0.9 (0.79–1.12) for Magare. Lines show declines predicted over six months assuming imposed daily mortalities of 3–6%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Predicted_decline_in_a_tsetse_population_over_12_months_assuming_imposed_mortalities_of_1_8211_8_day_and_B_observed_decline_over_six_months_on_islands_where_tiny_targets_were_deployed_/1509741", "title"=>"A. Predicted decline in a tsetse population over 12 months assuming imposed mortalities of 1–8%/day and (B) observed decline over six months on islands where tiny targets were deployed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210819"], "description"=>"<p>Grey area indicates months when target were present on Big Chamaunga (BC); no targets deployed on Small Chamaunga (SC). Traps were operated before (Jan-May 2011) and after (June 2011 onwards) targets were deployed. E-targets (June 2011 onwards) and flyrounds (September 2011 onwards) were operated only after targets were deployed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509737, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_daily_catch_177_95_CI_of_tsetse_from_A_traps_B_E_targets_and_C_flyrounds_on_islands_with_or_without_targets_/1509737", "title"=>"Mean daily catch (±95%CI) of tsetse from (A) traps, (B) E-targets and (C) flyrounds on islands with or without targets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210817"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Locations of monitoring traps for each intervention block (7 x 7 km squares) and rivers referred to in text (Enyau, Oluffe and Kochi). (B) Locations of targets (brown sections of rivers) within the five intervention blocks in 2013 (Ku = Kubala, Ay = Ayi, Ai = Aiivu, In = Inve, Ar = Arua). (C) Location of targets during the second phase of the trial; grey-coloured polygon denotes the extent of the operational area during Phase 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509735, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_traps_and_tiny_targets_in_NW_Uganda_/1509735", "title"=>"Locations of traps and tiny targets in NW Uganda.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210849"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT) outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly <i>Glossina fuscipes</i> which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce <i>G</i>. <i>fuscipes</i> populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km<sup>2</sup> field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km<sup>2</sup>). In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.</p><p>Interpretation</p><p>The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km<sup>2</sup>. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment), covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures). One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509749, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tsetse_Control_and_Gambian_Sleeping_Sickness_Implications_for_Control_Strategy_/1509749", "title"=>"Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210816"], "description"=>"<p>A tiny target deployed near the lakeshore for control of <i>G</i>. <i>f</i>. <i>fuscipes</i> on Big Chamaunga island, Kenya.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509734, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_tiny_target_deployed_near_the_lakeshore_for_control_of_G_f_fuscipes_on_Big_Chamaunga_island_Kenya_/1509734", "title"=>"A tiny target deployed near the lakeshore for control of <i>G</i>. <i>f</i>. <i>fuscipes</i> on Big Chamaunga island, Kenya.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210848"], "description"=>"<p>An in depth economic analysis of costs of control operations in Uganda is presented in [<a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822#pntd.0003822.ref030\" target=\"_blank\">30</a>]. These are the estimated headline figures in US$ per km<sup>2</sup> for a streamlined control operation covering 250 km<sup>2</sup>. The costs are in US$ per km<sup>2</sup> per year if the project is run entirely within the country without external, specialist assistance or a research component.</p><p>Costs of control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509748, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Costs_of_control_/1509748", "title"=>"Costs of control.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210825"], "description"=>"<p>Mean daily catches from traps (±95%CI) at the Centre or Edge of an intervention block; data pooled for all intervention blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509743, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catch_of_tsetse_from_traps_at_Centre_or_Edge_of_Phase_1_blocks_/1509743", "title"=>"Catch of tsetse from traps at Centre or Edge of Phase 1 blocks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210826"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted (lines, left y-axis) and observed (bars, right y-axis) decline in catch for (A) centre and (B) edge traps following deployment of targets in the small blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509744, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_lines_left_y_axis_and_observed_bars_right_y_axis_decline_in_catch_for_A_centre_and_B_edge_traps_following_deployment_of_targets_in_the_small_blocks_/1509744", "title"=>"Predicted (lines, left y-axis) and observed (bars, right y-axis) decline in catch for (A) centre and (B) edge traps following deployment of targets in the small blocks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210824"], "description"=>"<p>Daily mean catch (±95%CI) from traps operated in areas where tiny targets were present or absent (Koboko only) from November onwards.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509742, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_mean_catch_177_95_CI_from_traps_operated_in_areas_where_tiny_targets_were_present_or_absent_Koboko_only_from_November_onwards_/1509742", "title"=>"Daily mean catch (±95%CI) from traps operated in areas where tiny targets were present or absent (Koboko only) from November onwards.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210821"], "description"=>"<p>Grey areas denote when targets were present on the islands of Manga and Magare. No targets were deployed on the island of Small Chamaunga (SC) or the mainland site of Uyoma (U). Sampling was carried out between October 2011 and November 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509739, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_daily_catches_of_tsetse_177_95_CI_from_A_B_sites_where_targets_were_present_or_C_absent_/1509739", "title"=>"Mean daily catches of tsetse (±95%CI) from (A, B) sites where targets were present or (C) absent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210847"], "description"=>"<p>To obtain an estimate of the level of tsetse control required to stop transmission we have re-arranged a published model [<a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822#pntd.0003822.ref010\" target=\"_blank\">10</a>]. The average infectious period is usually accepted as 3 years and so we can see that a reduction in tsetse numbers of approximately 72% is required to drive R0<1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509747, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_Ro_y_axis_and_numbers_of_tsetse_x_axis_for_settings_where_the_average_infectious_period_is_1_8211_4_years_/1509747", "title"=>"Relationship between Ro (y-axis) and numbers of tsetse (x-axis) for settings where the average infectious period is 1–4 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210846"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Predicted density of tsetse from Centre and Edge positions following expansion of operational area from 7km (Phase 1) to 21km (Phase 2). (B) Rebound of tsetse at Centre following removal of targets or reduction in mortality imposed. (C) Relative density of tsetse along simulated river at the completion of Phases 1(P1) and 2 (P2) and rebound in tsetse when target density is reduced (P3) or targets are removed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HAT transmission", "case detection", "vector control", "density", "HAT foci", "vector control technology", "scale field trial", "Control Strategy BackgroundGambian", "500 km 2 field trial", "settings.InterpretationThe Ugandan census", "tsetse", "HAT transmission model", "Gambian Sleeping Sickness"], "article_id"=>1509746, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Inaki Tirados", "Johan Esterhuizen", "Vanja Kovacic", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale", "Ian Hastings", "Philippe Solano", "Michael J. Lehane", "Steve J. Torr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003822.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_effect_of_targets_on_relative_densities_of_tsetse_/1509746", "title"=>"Predicted effect of targets on relative densities of tsetse.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:14:12"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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