Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Publication Date
October 09, 2015
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Marit G. Tellevik, Sabrina J. Moyo, Bjørn Blomberg, Torunn Hjøllo, et al
Volume
9
Issue
10
Pages
e0004125
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004125
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0004125
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452235
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4599730
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26452235
Web of Science
000364459600031
Scopus
84959250488
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/prevalence-cryptosporidium-parvumhominis-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-among-young-children
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marit G.", "last_name"=>"Tellevik", "scopus_author_id"=>"8391334800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sabrina J.", "last_name"=>"Moyo", "scopus_author_id"=>"22135615200"}, {"first_name"=>"Bjørn", "last_name"=>"Blomberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"35848168400"}, {"first_name"=>"Torunn", "last_name"=>"Hjøllo", "scopus_author_id"=>"57142580200"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel Y.", "last_name"=>"Maselle", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602092232"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Langeland", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004550853"}, {"first_name"=>"Kurt", "last_name"=>"Hanevik", "scopus_author_id"=>"55482406500"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84959250488", "pmid"=>"26452235", "pui"=>"608551769", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84959250488", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0004125", "issn"=>"19352735"}, "id"=>"e7a86540-4ed6-32e4-97e2-d81d825321d2", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011. Detection and identification of protozoans were done by PCR techniques on DNA from stool specimens from 701 cases of children admitted due to diarrhea at the three study hospitals, and 558 controls of children with no history of diarrhea during the last month prior to enrollment. The prevalence of C. parvum/hominis was 10.4% (84.7% C. hominis), and that of G. lamblia 4.6%. E. histolytica was not detected. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher in cases (16.3%) than in controls (3.1%; P < 0.001; OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 3.7-10.4). G. lamblia was significantly more prevalent in controls (6.1%) than in cases (3.4%; P = 0.027; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). Cryptosporidium infection was found more often in HIV-positive (24.2%) than in HIV-negative children (3.9%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.1-20.5), and was also associated with rainfall (P < 0.001; OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.5-3.8). Among cases, stunted children had significantly higher risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium (P = 0.011; OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.2-3.8). G. lamblia infection was more prevalent in the cool season (P = 0.004; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8), and more frequent among cases aged > 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8). Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/prevalence-cryptosporidium-parvumhominis-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-among-young-children", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Rwanda"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2354539"], "description"=>"<p>The graph shows the prevalence (%) of <i>Cryptosporidium</i> infection and <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> infection among all study participants, together with the total rainfall in mm, for each month during the study period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lamblia infection", "pcr", "Tanzania BackgroundAlthough enteroparasites", "cryptosporidium", "diarrheal illness", "dna", "Giardia lamblia", "prevalence", "ci", "hiv", "July 2011. Detection", "Dar es"], "article_id"=>1571392, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marit G. Tellevik", "Sabrina J. Moyo", "Bjørn Blomberg", "Torunn Hjøllo", "Samuel Y. Maselle", "Nina Langeland", "Kurt Hanevik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004125.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_Cryptosporidium_infection_G_lamblia_infection_and_total_rainfall_each_month_during_the_study_period_/1571392", "title"=>"Prevalence of <i>Cryptosporidium</i> infection, <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> infection and total rainfall each month during the study period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-09 02:46:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2354546"], "description"=>"<p><sup>1</sup>Oligo, Name of the oligonucleotide</p><p><sup>2</sup>Probe labelled with different fluorophore than used in the reference</p><p><sup>3</sup>Primers and probe for detection of <i>Giardia lamblia</i></p><p><sup>4</sup>Primers for typing of <i>Giardia lamblia</i></p><p>Primers and probes used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lamblia infection", "pcr", "Tanzania BackgroundAlthough enteroparasites", "cryptosporidium", "diarrheal illness", "dna", "Giardia lamblia", "prevalence", "ci", "hiv", "July 2011. Detection", "Dar es"], "article_id"=>1571400, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marit G. Tellevik", "Sabrina J. Moyo", "Bjørn Blomberg", "Torunn Hjøllo", "Samuel Y. Maselle", "Nina Langeland", "Kurt Hanevik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004125.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_and_probes_used_in_this_study_/1571400", "title"=>"Primers and probes used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-09 02:46:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2354550"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of <i>Cryptosporidium parvum</i>/<i>hominis</i>, <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> and <i>Giardia lamblia</i> among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011. Detection and identification of protozoans were done by PCR techniques on DNA from stool specimens from 701 cases of children admitted due to diarrhea at the three study hospitals, and 558 controls of children with no history of diarrhea during the last month prior to enrollment. The prevalence of <i>C</i>. <i>parvum</i>/<i>hominis</i> was 10.4% (84.7% <i>C</i>. <i>hominis</i>), and that of <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> 4.6%. <i>E</i>. <i>histolytica</i> was not detected. The prevalence of <i>Cryptosporidium</i> was significantly higher in cases (16.3%) than in controls (3.1%; P < 0.001; OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 3.7–10.4). <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> was significantly more prevalent in controls (6.1%) than in cases (3.4%; P = 0.027; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). <i>Cryptosporidium</i> infection was found more often in HIV-positive (24.2%) than in HIV-negative children (3.9%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.1–20.5), and was also associated with rainfall (P < 0.001; OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.5–3.8). Among cases, stunted children had significantly higher risk of being infected with <i>Cryptosporidium</i> (P = 0.011; OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.2–3.8). <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> infection was more prevalent in the cool season (P = 0.004; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.8), and more frequent among cases aged > 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5–7.8). Among children aged 7–12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p><i>Cryptosporidium</i> infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lamblia infection", "pcr", "Tanzania BackgroundAlthough enteroparasites", "cryptosporidium", "diarrheal illness", "dna", "Giardia lamblia", "prevalence", "ci", "hiv", "July 2011. Detection", "Dar es"], "article_id"=>1571402, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marit G. Tellevik", "Sabrina J. Moyo", "Bjørn Blomberg", "Torunn Hjøllo", "Samuel Y. Maselle", "Nina Langeland", "Kurt Hanevik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004125", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Prevalence_of_Cryptosporidium_parvum_hominis_Entamoeba_histolytica_and_Giardia_lamblia_among_Young_Children_with_and_without_Diarrhea_in_Dar_es_Salaam_Tanzania/1571402", "title"=>"Prevalence of <i>Cryptosporidium parvum</i>/<i>hominis</i>, <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> and <i>Giardia lamblia</i> among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-09 02:46:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2354545"], "description"=>"<p>The graph shows the prevalence of (A) <i>Cryptosporidium</i> infection and (B) <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> infection for the different age groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lamblia infection", "pcr", "Tanzania BackgroundAlthough enteroparasites", "cryptosporidium", "diarrheal illness", "dna", "Giardia lamblia", "prevalence", "ci", "hiv", "July 2011. Detection", "Dar es"], "article_id"=>1571399, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marit G. Tellevik", "Sabrina J. Moyo", "Bjørn Blomberg", "Torunn Hjøllo", "Samuel Y. Maselle", "Nina Langeland", "Kurt Hanevik"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004125.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_Cryptosporidium_and_G_lamblia_for_the_different_age_groups_/1571399", "title"=>"Prevalence of <i>Cryptosporidium</i> and <i>G</i>. <i>lamblia</i> for the different age groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-09 02:46:27"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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