Ascaris from Humans and Pigs Appear to Be Reproductively Isolated Species
Publication Date
September 01, 2016
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Martin Jensen Søe, Christian M. O. Kapel & Peter Nejsum
Volume
10
Issue
9
Pages
e0004855
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004855
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0004855
Scopus
84991773766
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/ascaris-humans-pigs-appear-reproductively-isolated-species
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Ascaris from Humans and Pigs Appear to Be Reproductively Isolated Species", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Martin Jensen", "last_name"=>"Søe", "scopus_author_id"=>"25654187500"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian M.O.", "last_name"=>"Kapel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003772347"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Nejsum", "scopus_author_id"=>"8317302600"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19352735", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84991773766", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0004855", "pui"=>"612818799", "sgr"=>"84991773766"}, "id"=>"bc7a8060-e62a-355a-a232-5e0da72ea5f0", "abstract"=>"The taxonomic status of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum is contentious: shall they be consid-ered a single species? Yes, as argued by Leles et al. [1], and most recently debated through opposing views by Alves et al. [2] and Betson et al. [3]. Most taxonomic literature refers to two species, and results from investigations of the nuclear DNA of Ascaris isolates of human and pig origin suggest that they are reproductively isolated and thereby fulfill the biological species definition. In our opinion, two species should therefore still be recognized until convincing evi-dence is presented to justify a reclassification. And yes, a number of studies have compared Ascaris isolates from pigs and humans and have identified close similarities in mitochondrial [4–6] and single nuclear markers (such as internal transcribed spacer [ITS] [5,7] and 18S rRNA [8]), including shared genotypes and haplotypes. It has been clearly established that Ascaris can cross infect hosts experimentally and in natural settings, as reviewed by Nejsum et al. [9]. However, four studies have examined highly variable nuclear markers—that is, microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP)—in worm isolates of human and pig origin from many different geographic locations and identified distinct segregation according to host and geographical origin: Study 1: Criscione et al. [10] showed genetic differentiation among all tested populations using microsatellite markers. The dataset comprised 97 human isolates from China, Guate-mala, and Nepal and 32 pig isolates from China and Guatemala, among which four hybrids were detected in humans. A single host shift between pigs and humans was not demonstrated, suggesting that host-associated populations emerged after geographical isolation. Study 2: Zhou et al. [7] examined microsatellite markers in 137 human and 121 pig isolates from China and identified cross infections, which most often (19 of 20 cases) occurred by infec-tion of humans with pig-type Ascaris, in addition to 20 identified hybrid cases, of which again most (19) were found in humans. Even though this study does not include global sampling, it suggests that there is restricted gene flow between human and pig Ascaris in China. Study 3: The most comprehensive dataset was presented more recently by Betson et al. [4], in which 246 human and 164 pig isolates from Europe, Africa, and Asia were examined using microsatellite markers. In a sympatric area (Kabale district), two cases of cross infections were identified (one in each host) out of a total of 199 worms, whereas all worms from humans in", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ascaris-humans-pigs-appear-reproductively-isolated-species", "reader_count"=>7, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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