Diversification of Orientia tsutsugamushi genotypes by intragenic recombination and their potential expansion in endemic areas
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{"title"=>"Diversification of Orientia tsutsugamushi genotypes by intragenic recombination and their potential expansion in endemic areas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gwanghun", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56612622200"}, {"first_name"=>"Na Young", "last_name"=>"Ha", "scopus_author_id"=>"48661294400"}, {"first_name"=>"Chan Ki", "last_name"=>"Min", "scopus_author_id"=>"23035502000"}, {"first_name"=>"Hong Il", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192369335"}, {"first_name"=>"Nguyen Thi Hai", "last_name"=>"Yen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192372396"}, {"first_name"=>"Keun Hwa", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"56812652600"}, {"first_name"=>"Inbo", "last_name"=>"Oh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55266958600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jae Seung", "last_name"=>"Kang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404517216"}, {"first_name"=>"Myung Sik", "last_name"=>"Choi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56582818800"}, {"first_name"=>"Ik Sang", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56493295600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nam Hyuk", "last_name"=>"Cho", "scopus_author_id"=>"34973855600"}], "year"=>2017, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19352735", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0005408", "sgr"=>"85017017102", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85017017102", "isbn"=>"1111111111", "pmid"=>"28248956", "pui"=>"615136484"}, "id"=>"73d966d0-f46c-3ab8-bf71-00ebe7552535", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Scrub typhus is a mite-borne febrile disease caused by O. tsutsugamushi infection. Recently, emergence of scrub typhus has attracted considerable attention in several endemic countries in Asia and the western Pacific. In addition, the antigenic diversity of the intracellular pathogen has been a serious obstacle for developing effective diagnostics and vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To understand the evolutionary pathway of genotypic diversification of O. tsutsugamushi and the environmental factors associated with the epidemiological features of scrub typhus, we analyzed sequence data, including spatiotemporal information, of the tsa56 gene encoding a major outer membrane protein responsible for antigenic variation. A total of 324 tsa56 sequences covering more than 85% of its open reading frame were analyzed and classified into 17 genotypes based on phylogenetic relationship. Extensive sequence analysis of tsa56 genes using diverse informatics tools revealed multiple intragenic recombination events, as well as a substantially higher mutation rate than other house-keeping genes. This suggests that genetic diversification occurred via frequent point mutations and subsequent genetic recombination. Interestingly, more diverse bacterial genotypes and dominant vector species prevail in Taiwan compared to other endemic regions. Furthermore, the co-presence of identical and sub-identical clones of tsa56 gene in geographically distant areas implies potential spread of O. tsutsugamushi genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE Fluctuation and diversification of vector species harboring O. tsutsugamushi in local endemic areas may facilitate genetic recombination among diverse genotypes. Therefore, careful monitoring of dominant vector species, as well as the prevalence of O. tsutsugamushi genotypes may be advisable to enable proper anticipation of epidemiological changes of scrub typhus.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/diversification-orientia-tsutsugamushi-genotypes-intragenic-recombination-potential-expansion-endemi", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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