Changing Human Visual Field Organization from Early Visual to Extra-Occipital Cortex
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{"title"=>"Changing human visual field organization from early visual to extra-occipital cortex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anthony L.", "last_name"=>"Jack", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102822823"}, {"first_name"=>"Gaurav H.", "last_name"=>"Patel", "scopus_author_id"=>"12780150100"}, {"first_name"=>"Serguel V.", "last_name"=>"Astafiev", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801622960"}, {"first_name"=>"Abraham Z.", "last_name"=>"Snyder", "scopus_author_id"=>"35548911400"}, {"first_name"=>"Erbil", "last_name"=>"Akbudak", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602842337"}, {"first_name"=>"Gordon L.", "last_name"=>"Shulman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102613906"}, {"first_name"=>"Maurizio", "last_name"=>"Corbetta", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003824365"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-42949107952", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0000452", "sgr"=>"42949107952", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"17505546", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"352646915"}, "id"=>"982c2928-4538-32cf-8028-dce0aa52db5d", "abstract"=>"Background\\nThe early visual areas have a clear topographic organization, such that adjacent parts of the cortical surface represent distinct yet adjacent parts of the contralateral visual field. We examined whether cortical regions outside occipital cortex show a similar organization.\\n\\nMethodology/Principal Findings\\nThe BOLD responses to discrete visual field locations that varied in both polar angle and eccentricity were measured using two different tasks. As described previously, numerous occipital regions are both selective for the contralateral visual field and show topographic organization within that field. Extra-occipital regions are also selective for the contralateral visual field, but possess little (or no) topographic organization. A regional analysis demonstrates that this weak topography is not due to increased receptive field size in extra-occipital areas.\\n\\nConclusions/Significance\\nA number of extra-occipital areas are identified that are sensitive to visual field location. Neurons in these areas corresponding to different locations in the contralateral visual field do not demonstrate any regular or robust topographic organization, but appear instead to be intermixed on the cortical surface. This suggests a shift from processing that is predominately local in visual space, in occipital areas, to global, in extra-occipital areas. Global processing fits with a role for these extra-occipital areas in selecting a spatial locus for attention and/or eye-movements.\\n", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/changing-human-visual-field-organization-early-visual-extraoccipital-cortex", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Neuroscience"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>21, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>8}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>21}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>2, "United States"=>8, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950169"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of extra-occipital cortical areas preferring the contra-lateral visual field.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extra-occipital", "cortical", "areas", "preferring", "contra-lateral"], "article_id"=>620481, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_extra_occipital_cortical_areas_preferring_the_contra_lateral_visual_field_/620481", "title"=>"Summary of extra-occipital cortical areas preferring the contra-lateral visual field.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950082"], "description"=>"<p>A illustrates topographic organization in dorsal visual and parietal areas. The graphs plot the magnitude of BOLD response to three locations of varying eccentricity in the contralateral visual field, by distance across the cortical surface. The dotted black lines show the mean response to ipsilateral locations. Cortical trajectories were drawn using data from the passive retinotopy task. The trajectories for V1, V2/V3 and V3A each followed representations of the horizontal meridian in dorsal occipital cortex (these are the solid lines shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452#pone-0000452-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>). The trajectory for MIPS was drawn at the same orientation on the flat surface. B shows mean responses for regions. The regions were defined using data from the polar angle version of the delayed saccade task, in which the eccentricity of the targets was approx. 7 degrees visual angle. The bars plot the BOLD response to contra-lateral locations, with the mean response to ipsi-lateral targets subtracted. These values are averaged across hemispheres (n = 4), with error bars showing the standard error. Note that in early visual areas there is a clear preference for the middle (13 deg.) contralateral location. This location corresponded most closely to the location of targets used to define these regions, and thus this preference reflects the topographic organization of these areas. This effect is not present in intermediate and extra-occipital areas. However, a few areas (V6/POS, PCu, ST) showed a preference for more peripheral stimuli.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eccentricity", "delayed", "saccade", "targets", "eccentricities", "13", "24", "degrees", "horizontal"], "article_id"=>620386, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_from_the_eccentricity_version_of_the_delayed_saccade_task_in_which_targets_lay_at_one_of_three_eccentricities_2_13_and_24_degrees_visual_angle_on_the_horizontal_meridian_/620386", "title"=>"Results from the eccentricity version of the delayed saccade task, in which targets lay at one of three eccentricities (2, 13 and 24 degrees visual angle) on the horizontal meridian.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:06:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950206"], "description"=>"<p>Number of scanning sessions (separate days) in which subjects participated in each task</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scanning", "sessions", "subjects", "participated"], "article_id"=>620519, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_scanning_sessions_separate_days_in_which_subjects_participated_in_each_task_/620519", "title"=>"Number of scanning sessions (separate days) in which subjects participated in each task", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:08:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467948", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468027", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468101", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468156", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468241", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468304", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468371", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468448", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468587"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The early visual areas have a clear topographic organization, such that adjacent parts of the cortical surface represent distinct yet adjacent parts of the contralateral visual field. We examined whether cortical regions outside occipital cortex show a similar organization.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>The BOLD responses to discrete visual field locations that varied in both polar angle and eccentricity were measured using two different tasks. As described previously, numerous occipital regions are both selective for the contralateral visual field and show topographic organization within that field. Extra-occipital regions are also selective for the contralateral visual field, but possess little (or no) topographic organization. A regional analysis demonstrates that this weak topography is not due to increased receptive field size in extra-occipital areas.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>A number of extra-occipital areas are identified that are sensitive to visual field location. Neurons in these areas corresponding to different locations in the contralateral visual field do not demonstrate any regular or robust topographic organization, but appear instead to be intermixed on the cortical surface. This suggests a shift from processing that is predominately <em>local</em> in visual space, in occipital areas, to <em>global</em>, in extra-occipital areas. Global processing fits with a role for these extra-occipital areas in selecting a spatial locus for attention and/or eye-movements.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extra-occipital", "cortex"], "article_id"=>152264, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Changing_Human_Visual_Field_Organization_from_Early_Visual_to_Extra_Occipital_Cortex/152264", "title"=>"Changing Human Visual Field Organization from Early Visual to Extra-Occipital Cortex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:37:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/949730"], "description"=>"<p>A flattened representation of occipital cortex of subject A is shown. (A) shows data from a passive viewing task in which contrast reversing checkerboards were displayed in alternating blocks along the horizontal and vertical meridians. Lines corresponding to the most robust representations of the horizontal and vertical meridians were drawn on the basis of this data set, and are reproduced in the other panels for comparison. (B) shows data from the polar angle version of the delayed saccade paradigm. Voxels showing a preference for the contralateral field were colored according to which of the three contra-lateral locations produced the greatest response. Note the close correspondence for the horizontal meridian, and the slight gap in activated representation on the vertical meridian, due to the stimuli lying 30 degrees from the vertical in this paradigm. (C) shows data from the oddball task, derived in the same way.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["passive", "retinotopy", "tasks", "polar"], "article_id"=>620045, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correspondence_between_passive_retinotopy_and_active_mapping_tasks_for_polar_angle_topography_/620045", "title"=>"Correspondence between passive retinotopy and active mapping tasks for polar angle topography.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:00:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/949919"], "description"=>"<p>A shows a flat representation of the cortex of the right hemisphere. B shows three different views of an inflated representation of the same surface. PCu, precuneus; ST, superior temporal; SFEF, superior FEF; IFEF, inferior FEF; MPCe, middle precentral; IFS, inferior frontal sulcus. The atlas co-ordinates of these regions are listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452#pone-0000452-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "pals"], "article_id"=>620238, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_illustration_of_regions_sensitive_to_visual_field_location_on_the_PALS_atlas_/620238", "title"=>"Schematic illustration of regions sensitive to visual field location on the PALS atlas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:03:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/949833"], "description"=>"<p>A and B: Medial and lateral views of an inflated representation of occipital cortex. C: flat representation of dorsal occipital and parietal cortex. Maps show preferred visual field location thresholded by contra-lateral preference, as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452#pone-0000452-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3 B&C</a>. The cortical trajectory (shown in black) was drawn from the horizontal meridian of V1, in the calcarine sulcus, through V2, V3, V3A, V7 and then through those parts of medial intraparietal sulcus showing the greatest sensitivity to visual field location. D: Magnitude of BOLD activity associated with the three contra-lateral visual field positions along the trajectory (colors match maps in panels A–C). E: Mean magnitude associated with contra-lateral (pink) and ipsi-lateral (blue) visual field positions. F: Compass plots illustrating the BOLD magnitude associated with each of the six polar angles. Each plot comes from a cortical area demonstrating a preference for the contra-lateral horizontal meridian (blue regions in panels A–C). Data shown comes from the right hemisphere of subject A. Supplementary <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452#pone.0000452.s001\" target=\"_blank\">figures S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452#pone.0000452.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a> show panels C–E for all eight hemispheres investigated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal", "areas", "medial", "intra-parietal", "polar", "delayed", "saccade"], "article_id"=>620145, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_field_organization_of_dorsal_visual_areas_and_medial_intra_parietal_sulcus_from_the_polar_angle_version_of_the_delayed_saccade_task_/620145", "title"=>"Visual field organization of dorsal visual areas and medial intra-parietal sulcus, from the polar angle version of the delayed saccade task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:02:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/949638"], "description"=>"<p>(A) In the delayed saccade task subjects maintained fixation while a target dot was briefly presented. This was followed by a variable delay period during which flickering dots appeared in the same sector of the visual field as the target. When the screen went black, subjects made a rapid saccade to the remembered target location, then back to the center. Trials occurred in blocks of three, with small variations in target location, within the same sector, between trials (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>). (B) The oddball task required subjects to categorize each stimulus, presented approx. once per second, as either ‘standard’ or ‘oddball’ using a manual response. On most trials the same ‘standard’ object was presented at the center, while on 12% of trials a novel object was presented in one of 7 locations (fovea or 6 peripheral locations as in the polar angle version of the delayed saccade task). Subjects maintained fixation throughout. (C) In the oddball task and the polar angle version of the delayed saccade task, the six sector centers were evenly distributed around a circle with a radius of approx 7 degrees visual angle. In the eccentricity version of the delayed saccade task, the sector centers lay on the horizontal meridian, at 2, 13 or 24 degrees eccentricity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tasks"], "article_id"=>619957, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_two_behavioral_tasks_used_in_the_study_/619957", "title"=>"The two behavioral tasks used in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 02:45:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/949570"], "description"=>"<p>The top two panels show two simulated distributions of neurons overlaid on a portion of the right hemisphere's cortical surface. Note that all the neurons prefer locations in the contralateral (left) visual field (see figure key in top left corner). Electrophysiological studies consistently show that most neurons prefer contralateral locations. In the top left panel, the neurons are topographically organized, such that neurons preferring nearby visual locations tend to lie close to each other on the cortical surface. In the top right panel, there is no topographic organization, such that neurons preferring different parts of contralateral visual field are randomly intermixed on the cortical surface. The middle panels show simulated BOLD maps in which voxels are colored to indicate the preferred visual location. The topographic organization of the neurons on the left is accurately reflected in the surface map. However, the map on the right also produces an illusory impression of topography. The problem is that the maps show the best fitting location in a ‘winner take all’ fashion, even when the differences between locations are insignificant. A more in-depth examination requires looking at how the magnitude of BOLD response varies as we move across the cortical surface. The dotted black line illustrates a trajectory across the cortical surface. The graphs in the bottom panel plot BOLD magnitudes along that trajectory. The topographic and non-topographic cases can now be clearly distinguished. The investigations we report here employ measures that take account of the relative magnitude of BOLD response to distinct visual locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods"], "article_id"=>619896, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_methods_for_assessing_visual_field_organization_/619896", "title"=>"Different methods for assessing visual field organization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 02:44:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/949994"], "description"=>"<p>A shows how the measures are calculated. The analysis was restricted to voxels which preferred either the upper or lower contralateral visual field locations. Each measure involves a subtraction of BOLD magnitudes associated with two visual field positions. The measures are comparable in the sense that the visual distance between locations was the same for each comparison. Importantly, increases in receptive field size should influence all measures equally. The black bars show the difference in BOLD response between the preferred visual field location and an ipsilateral location. Voxels were selected on the basis of contralateral preference, and so this measure can be considered as a baseline for comparison. The red bars reflect the difference between preferred and non-preferred within field locations. This measure reflects the degree of topography present in the region. In early visual areas, the red and black bars are identical, indicating a degree of topographic specificity as great as the contralateral preference. The blue bars indicate the difference between the non-preferred visual field location and the ipsilateral location. This measure reflects the degree to which the region possesses a non-topographic preference for the contra-lateral field. In extra-occipital areas, the black and blue bars are identical, indicating that these regions demonstrate a preference for the contra-lateral visual field but no detectable topography. Higher visual areas demonstrate a transition between these two types of organization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>620316, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Anthony I. Jack", "Gaurav H. Patel", "Serguei V. Astafiev", "Abraham Z. Snyder", "Erbil Akbudak", "Gordon L. Shulman", "Maurizio Corbetta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000452.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_visual_field_organization_/620316", "title"=>"Quantification of visual field organization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-16 00:05:16"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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