Cortical Modulations Increase in Early Sessions with Brain-Machine Interface
Publication Date
July 18, 2007
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Miriam Zacksenhouse, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Jose M. Carmena, Joseph E. O'doherty, et al
Volume
2
Issue
7
Pages
e619
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000619
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17637835
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1919433
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/17637835
Web of Science
000207452100009
Scopus
67349093706
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/cortical-modulations-increase-early-sessions-brainmachine-interface
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Cortical Modulations Increase in Early Sessions with Brain-Machine Interface", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Miriam", "last_name"=>"Zacksenhouse", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701325687"}, {"first_name"=>"Mikhail A.", "last_name"=>"Lebedev", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102152073"}, {"first_name"=>"Jose M.", "last_name"=>"Carmena", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701592388"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph E.", "last_name"=>"O'Doherty", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006869779"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig", "last_name"=>"Henriquez", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005835144"}, {"first_name"=>"Miguel A L", "last_name"=>"Nicolelis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005998604"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"17637835", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0000619", "pui"=>"368587367", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"67349093706", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67349093706"}, "id"=>"c05adc90-5dfe-3859-8bdc-390a27b3b477", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: During planning and execution of reaching movements, the activity of cortical motor neurons is modulated by a diversity of motor, sensory, and cognitive signals. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract part of these modulations to directly control artificial actuators. However, cortical modulations that emerge in the novel context of operating the BMI are poorly understood.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we analyzed the changes in neuronal modulations that occurred in different cortical motor areas as monkeys learned to use a BMI to control reaching movements. Using spike-train analysis methods we demonstrate that the modulations of the firing-rates of cortical neurons increased abruptly after the monkeys started operating the BMI. Regression analysis revealed that these enhanced modulations were not correlated with the kinematics of the movement. The initial enhancement in firing rate modulations declined gradually with subsequent training in parallel with the improvement in behavioral performance.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the enhanced modulations are related to computational tasks that are significant especially in novel motor contexts. Although the function and neuronal mechanism of the enhanced cortical modulations are open for further inquiries, we discuss their potential role in processing execution errors and representing corrective or explorative activity. These representations are expected to contribute to the formation of internal models of the external actuator and their decoding may facilitate BMI improvement.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cortical-modulations-increase-early-sessions-brainmachine-interface", "reader_count"=>95, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>21, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>14, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>21}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>14}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>8, "Japan"=>1, "China"=>1, "Egypt"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947879"], "description"=>"<p>Full bars mark the mean values across all the 2-minute intervals in the same control mode, and error bars represent the standard deviation. M1–primary motor cortex, PMd–dorsal premotor cortex, S1–primary somatosensory cortex, SMA–supplementary motor area, PP–Posterior Parietal Cortex (medial intraparietal).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modulated", "units", "cortical", "regions", "modes"], "article_id"=>618210, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_POM_of_the_N_sig_significantly_modulated_units_in_different_cortical_regions_during_different_control_modes_in_a_single_session_with_each_monkey_/618210", "title"=>"Mean-<i>POM</i> of the N<sub>sig</sub> significantly modulated units in different cortical regions during different control modes in a single session with each monkey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:16:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/948112"], "description"=>"<p>(*) Including neurons in ipsilateral M1, which are too few to analyze as a group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurons", "pom", "variance", "sessions", "depicted", "modulate"], "article_id"=>618444, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_neurons_with_increasing_POM_POM_inc_and_increasing_variance_Var_inc_during_the_sessions_depicted_in_Figure_4_and_5_out_of_the_N_sig_significantly_modulate_neurons_/618444", "title"=>"Number of neurons with increasing POM (<i>POM<sub>inc</sub></i>) and increasing variance (<i>Var<sub>inc</sub></i>), during the sessions depicted in Figure 4, and 5, out of the <i>N<sub>sig</sub></i> significantly modulate neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:20:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947832"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>POM</i> and spike-count statistics were computed in 2-minute non-overlapping intervals and averaged across all the <i>N<sub>sig</sub></i> = 169 significantly modulated neurons to obtain the ensemble-average.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spike-count", "bcwoh", "pmd"], "article_id"=>618170, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variations_in_POM_top_and_spike_count_statistics_bottom_during_an_experimental_session_with_direct_transition_form_pole_control_to_BCWOH_ensemble_average_left_panels_single_PMd_unit_right_panels_/618170", "title"=>"Variations in <i>POM</i> (top) and spike-count statistics (bottom) during an experimental session with direct transition form pole control to BCWOH (ensemble-average–left panels; single PMd unit–right panels).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:16:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/466489"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>During planning and execution of reaching movements, the activity of cortical motor neurons is modulated by a diversity of motor, sensory, and cognitive signals. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract part of these modulations to directly control artificial actuators. However, cortical modulations that emerge in the novel context of operating the BMI are poorly understood.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Here we analyzed the changes in neuronal modulations that occurred in different cortical motor areas as monkeys learned to use a BMI to control reaching movements. Using spike-train analysis methods we demonstrate that the modulations of the firing-rates of cortical neurons increased abruptly after the monkeys started operating the BMI. Regression analysis revealed that these enhanced modulations were not correlated with the kinematics of the movement. The initial enhancement in firing rate modulations declined gradually with subsequent training in parallel with the improvement in behavioral performance.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>We conclude that the enhanced modulations are related to computational tasks that are significant especially in novel motor contexts. Although the function and neuronal mechanism of the enhanced cortical modulations are open for further inquiries, we discuss their potential role in processing execution errors and representing corrective or explorative activity. These representations are expected to contribute to the formation of internal models of the external actuator and their decoding may facilitate BMI improvement.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cortical", "modulations", "sessions", "brain-machine", "interface"], "article_id"=>151942, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cortical_Modulations_Increase_in_Early_Sessions_with_Brain_Machine_Interface/151942", "title"=>"Cortical Modulations Increase in Early Sessions with Brain-Machine Interface", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 00:32:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947918"], "description"=>"<p>The analysis decomposed the variance carried by the ensemble of the significantly modulated neurons recorded from all brain regions. Inset: zoomed-in version of the same plot for the initial 20 principle neurons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variance", "carried", "neurons"], "article_id"=>618257, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_variance_carried_by_the_different_principal_neurons_during_the_same_session_analyzed_in_Figure_5_/618257", "title"=>"Percent variance carried by the different principal neurons during the same session analyzed in Figure 5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:17:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/948006"], "description"=>"<p>Full bars mark the mean values across all the 2-minute intervals in the same control mode, and error bars represent the standard deviation. M1–primary motor cortex, PMd–dorsal premotor cortex, S1–primary somatosensory cortex, SMA–supplementary motor area, PP–posterior parietal cortex (medial intraparietal).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modulated", "units", "cortical", "regions", "modes", "sessions"], "article_id"=>618338, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_PVM_of_the_N_sig_significantly_modulated_units_in_different_cortical_regions_during_different_control_modes_in_the_same_sessions_as_Figure_7_/618338", "title"=>"Mean-<i>PVM</i> of the N<sub>sig</sub> significantly modulated units in different cortical regions during different control modes in the same sessions as Figure 7.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:18:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947794"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>POM</i> and spike-count statistics were computed in 2-minute non-overlapping intervals and averaged across all the <i>N<sub>sig</sub></i> = 160 significantly modulated neurons to obtain the ensemble-average.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spike-count", "pmd"], "article_id"=>618127, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variations_in_POM_top_and_spike_count_statistics_bottom_during_the_same_experimental_session_analyzed_in_Figure_4_ensemble_average_left_panels_single_PMd_unit_right_panels_/618127", "title"=>"Variations in <i>POM</i> (top) and spike-count statistics (bottom) during the same experimental session analyzed in Figure 4 (ensemble-average–left panels; single PMd unit–right panels).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:15:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/948144"], "description"=>"<p>Mean-<i>POM</i> and Mean-<i>PVM</i> of neurons in different brain regions during each control mode. The standard deviations reflect variations in the ensemble-statistics across time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurons", "regions", "deviations", "variations", "ensemble-statistics"], "article_id"=>618480, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_POM_and_Mean_PVM_of_neurons_in_different_brain_regions_during_each_control_mode_The_standard_deviations_reflect_variations_in_the_ensemble_statistics_across_time_/618480", "title"=>"Mean-<i>POM</i> and Mean-<i>PVM</i> of neurons in different brain regions during each control mode. The standard deviations reflect variations in the ensemble-statistics across time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:21:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/948064"], "description"=>"<p>N<sub>sig</sub> = 156, 130, 142, 142, 150, 140, 160, 166, 174 and 165. Initial sessions included BCWH while later sessions included only BCWOH.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["percent", "modulation", "velocity", "untagged", "modulated", "neurons", "10", "bmi", "sessions"], "article_id"=>618393, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_training_percent_overall_modulation_POM_percent_velocity_modulation_PVM_and_percent_untagged_modulation_PUM_of_the_N_sig_significantly_modulated_neurons_during_all_the_10_BMI_sessions_with_monkey_1_/618393", "title"=>"Effect of training: percent overall modulation <i>POM</i>, percent velocity modulation <i>PVM</i> and percent untagged modulation <i>PUM</i> of the N<sub>sig</sub> significantly modulated neurons during all the 10 BMI sessions with monkey #1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:19:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947757"], "description"=>"<p>Top: Scatter plot of <i>POM</i> in brain versus pole control. Bottom: distribution of POM of all significantly modulated units (left) and those in M1 (right upper, <i>N<sub>sig</sub></i> = 56) and PMd (right lower, <i>N<sub>sig</sub></i> = 55).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modulation", "modulated", "units", "recorded"], "article_id"=>618090, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_Overall_Modulation_POM_for_N_sig__160_significantly_modulated_units_recorded_in_the_same_session_analyzed_in_Figure_2_/618090", "title"=>"Percent Overall Modulation (<i>POM</i>) for <i>N<sub>sig</sub></i> = 160 significantly modulated units recorded in the same session analyzed in Figure 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:14:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947708"], "description"=>"<p>Percent Overall Modulation (<i>POM</i>) in pole control, BCWH and BCWOH for two representative M1 units.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modulation", "bcwh", "bcwoh", "m1"], "article_id"=>618039, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_Overall_Modulation_POM_in_pole_control_BCWH_and_BCWOH_for_two_representative_M1_units_/618039", "title"=>"Percent Overall Modulation (<i>POM</i>) in pole control, BCWH and BCWOH for two representative M1 units.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:13:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947960"], "description"=>"<p>Coloured dashed lines mark the linear regression lines. Black dashed lines mark the diagonal unit-slope lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modulated", "neurons", "recorded"], "article_id"=>618294, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_PVM_and_POM_for_all_the_N_sig_8202_8202_160_significantly_modulated_neurons_recorded_in_one_session_/618294", "title"=>"Correlation between <i>PVM</i> and <i>POM</i> for all the N<sub>sig</sub> = 160 significantly modulated neurons recorded in one session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:18:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947661"], "description"=>"<p>Mean-variance relationship computed based on 100-ms bins (top panels); and scatter plots of Fano factor in brain versus pole control (bottom panels). BCWH–Brain control with hand movements, BCWOH–Brain control without hand movements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["units", "recorded"], "article_id"=>617999, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Firing_rate_statistics_for_N_n__183_units_recorded_in_one_session_/617999", "title"=>"Firing rate statistics for <i>N<sub>n</sub></i> = 183 units recorded in one session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:13:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/947622"], "description"=>"<p>Inhomogeneous Poisson process and implied variance distribution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["poisson", "implied", "variance"], "article_id"=>617953, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Miriam Zacksenhouse", "Mikhail A. Lebedev", "Jose M. Carmena", "Joseph E. O'Doherty", "Craig Henriquez", "Miguel A.L. Nicolelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000619.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inhomogeneous_Poisson_process_and_implied_variance_distribution_/617953", "title"=>"Inhomogeneous Poisson process and implied variance distribution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-18 02:12:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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