Retinal Encoding of Ultrabrief Shape Recognition Cues
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Retinal encoding of ultrabrief shape recognition cues", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ernest", "last_name"=>"Greene", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101713487"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-41149107304", "pmid"=>"17849001", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"41149107304", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0000871", "pui"=>"351425676"}, "id"=>"de67a7c2-9d79-3f57-91c3-76cc0d13c550", "abstract"=>"Shape encoding mechanisms can be probed by the sequential brief display of dots that mark the boundary of the shape, and delays of less that a millisecond between successive dots can impair recognition. It is not entirely clear whether this is accomplished by preserving stimulus timing in the signal being sent to the brain, or calls for a retinal binding mechanism. Two experiments manipulated the degree of simultaneity among and within dot pairs, requiring also that the pair members be in the same half of the visual field or on opposite halves, i.e., across the midline from one another. Recognition performance was impaired the same for these two conditions. The results make it likely that simultaneity of cues is being registered within the retina. A potential mechanism is suggested, calling for linkage of stimulated sites through activation of PA1 cells. A third experiment confirmed a prior finding that the overall level of recognition deficit is partly a function of display-set size, and affirmed submillisecond resolution in binding dot pairs into effective shape-recognition cues.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/retinal-encoding-ultrabrief-shape-recognition-cues", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Egypt"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/465169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/465376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/465477"], "description"=>"<div><p>Shape encoding mechanisms can be probed by the sequential brief display of dots that mark the boundary of the shape, and delays of less that a millisecond between successive dots can impair recognition. It is not entirely clear whether this is accomplished by preserving stimulus timing in the signal being sent to the brain, or calls for a retinal binding mechanism. Two experiments manipulated the degree of simultaneity among and within dot pairs, requiring also that the pair members be in the same half of the visual field or on opposite halves, <em>i.e.</em>, across the midline from one another. Recognition performance was impaired the same for these two conditions. The results make it likely that simultaneity of cues is being registered within the retina. A potential mechanism is suggested, calling for linkage of stimulated sites through activation of PA1 cells. A third experiment confirmed a prior finding that the overall level of recognition deficit is partly a function of display-set size, and affirmed submillisecond resolution in binding dot pairs into effective shape-recognition cues.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retinal", "encoding", "ultrabrief", "cues"], "article_id"=>151714, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Retinal_Encoding_of_Ultrabrief_Shape_Recognition_Cues/151714", "title"=>"Retinal Encoding of Ultrabrief Shape Recognition Cues", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 00:28:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/946304"], "description"=>"<p>For Experiment 3, model predictions at the eight T3 intervals are plotted across the four display set sizes that were chosen for analysis. Recognition declined in a systematic manner as the number of dots in the display set was increased, with very consistent alignment of plot points except for the largest display set shown at the longest T3 interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["t3", "intervals"], "article_id"=>616677, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decline_of_recognition_for_T3_intervals_as_a_function_of_Dot_/616677", "title"=>"Decline of recognition for T3 intervals as a function of Dot#.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:51:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/945892"], "description"=>"<p>The vertical meridian of the eye provides a dividing line for both anatomical and functional segregation of image information. As subjects fixate the display board, dots that are on each side of the stimulus will be sent to opposite hemispheres. This is true even when both eyes are used to view the stimulus, as illustrated in any basic textbook on visual function. Thus for dot pairs that are horizontally aligned, one member will be sent to the ipsilateral side of the brain and the other to the contralateral side. This might be expected to impair performance in a minimal transient discrete cue task wherein pairs must have millisecond-level contiguity to provide for effective shape recognition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dots"], "article_id"=>616267, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stimulus_dots_on_each_side_of_the_display_go_to_opposite_hemispheres_/616267", "title"=>"Stimulus dots on each side of the display go to opposite hemispheres.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:44:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/946428"], "description"=>"<p>The polyaxonal amacrine cell may provide a mechanism for linking discrete stimulus events. A. This illustration approximates the camera Lucida drawing by Dacey <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871#pone.0000871-Dacey1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a> of a typical primate polyaxonal amacrine cell. The dendritic branches are shown in blue, and evidence indicates that stimulus influence is restricted to this zone. The axon branches are shown in red. These branches have vericosities along their full length that would provide a spreading ring of synaptic influence upon activation of the cell. The scale bar is 500 microns. B. An array of polyaxonal cells is provided to illustrate linkage of cells through an extensive overlapping axon plexus. The span of the axon field, shown in pink, ranges from roughly 7.5 to 40 degrees of visual angle for central and peripheral retina, respectively. For any given location of the retina, axons from approximately 200–300 PA1 cells overlap, providing a plexus with an average spacing of approximately 2 microns <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871#pone.0000871-Wright1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "contemporaneous"], "article_id"=>616791, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PA1_cells_may_register_contemporaneous_stimulus_events_/616791", "title"=>"PA1 cells may register contemporaneous stimulus events.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:53:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/945959"], "description"=>"<p>The four panels illustrate the method of forming vertically and horizontally aligned pairs. In the first and third panels a full display set is shown, these being all the dots that were paired and successively displayed to a given participant. To form the pair a dot was chosen at random, and then was yoked with another, requiring that the axis of alignment across the two must be approximately vertical or horizontal. This process was repeated until all possible pairs were chosen. The second and fourth panels show the pairs being successively displayed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vertically", "alignment"], "article_id"=>616336, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_or_vertically_alignment_of_pairs_/616336", "title"=>"Horizontal or vertically alignment of pairs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:45:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/946166"], "description"=>"<p>Experiment 2 used horizontally aligned dots, kept the interval between successive pairs at a constant 3 ms, and varied the interval between members of each pair from 0–1.5 ms. There was a significant linear decline in recognition as the interval between pair members was increased.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["between-pair", "provides"], "article_id"=>616532, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Manipulation_of_between_pair_timing_provides_similar_evidence_/616532", "title"=>"Manipulation of between-pair timing provides similar evidence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:48:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/946037"], "description"=>"<p>Experiment 1 examined dot-pair alignment and temporal separation of pairs as factors for successful recognition of the shapes. Each dot pair was shown in 0.2 ms, and the interval between successive pairs was varied from 0–6 ms. Model values reflecting mean recognition level for each of the eight treatment combinations have been plotted. There was no indication of a difference in recognition as a function of vertical or horizontal dot alignment, but there was a significant linear decline as a function of the temporal interval between dot pairs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differential", "indicates", "retina"], "article_id"=>616405, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lack_of_horizontal_vertical_differential_indicates_retina_cue_binding_/616405", "title"=>"Lack of horizontal/vertical differential indicates retina cue-binding.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:46:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/946360"], "description"=>"<p>The model predictions for the four chosen display set sizes of Experiment 3 are plotted across the range of T3 intervals. Recognition declined in a systematic manner as a function of the delay between successive dot pairs. Alignment across plot points was most consistent for T3 intervals in the 0–2 ms range.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["groups", "t3"], "article_id"=>616727, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ernest Greene"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000871.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decline_of_recognition_for_Dot_groups_as_a_function_of_T3_interval_/616727", "title"=>"Decline of recognition for Dot# groups as a function of T3 interval.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-09-12 01:52:07"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"112", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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