A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants
Publication Date
November 21, 2007
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Laurence Gaume & Yoel Forterre
Volume
2
Issue
11
Pages
e1185
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001185
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18030325
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2075164
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/18030325
Web of Science
000207459200004
Scopus
43149120252
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941714"], "description"=>"<p>Flies (empty squares), ants (filled squares). The Deborah number (<i>De</i>) is defined as the ratio of the fluid elastic relaxation time <i>λ</i> (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185#pone-0001185-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3b</a>) to the typical half-period of the swimming stroke of insects in the fluid <i>τ.</i> For each insect category, the capture rate decreases rapidly when <i>De</i><1, suggesting that trapping occurs when the elastic forces created by the insect's movements have no time to relax.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["insects", "deborah"], "article_id"=>612135, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Virology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Laurence Gaume", "Yoel Forterre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Capture_rate_of_insects_as_a_function_of_the_Deborah_number_/612135", "title"=>"Capture rate of insects as a function of the Deborah number.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-11-21 00:35:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941597"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Shear viscosity <i>η</i> as a function of the shear rate (same mixing of fluids as in retention experiments). (b) Typical transient extensional viscosity <i>η<sub>E</sub></i> as a function of the extensional strain <i>E</i>, obtained from the thinning dynamics of a liquid filament in a capillary break-up geometry (see inset, the solid line materializes the elasto-capillary exponential regime giving the elastic relaxation time <i>λ</i>). The high increase of the extensional viscosity with strain is a signature of fluid elasticity. Arrows in (a) and (b) indicate the typical values of shear viscosity and extensional viscosity corresponding to insect motion in the fluid (∼40 s<sup>−1</sup> and with <i>τ</i>∼0.1 s the typical time scale for insect motion). Scale bars, 1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elasticity", "digestive"], "article_id"=>612018, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Virology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Laurence Gaume", "Yoel Forterre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viscosity_and_elasticity_of_the_pure_digestive_fluid_of_N_rafflesiana_/612018", "title"=>"Viscosity and elasticity of the pure digestive fluid of <i>N. rafflesiana</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-11-21 00:33:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941485"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Pitcher of <i>N. rafflesiana</i> showing a <i>Calliphora</i> fly collecting extrafloral nectar in a perilous position (Brunei). (b) Capture rate of <i>C. vomitoria</i> flies (white) and <i>L. humile</i> ants (black) thrown into glass vials filled with pure digestive fluid (100%), water (0%) and intermediate dilutions (digestive fluid from a mixing of 7 pitchers of 7 individual plants). (c) Dynamical sequence of a fly (<i>C. vomitoria</i>) after falling into the digestive fluid, showing a viscoelastic liquid filament attached to its leg (arrows). Time between frames: 80 ms. Scale bars, 1 cm (a); 3 mm (c).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["digestive"], "article_id"=>611907, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Virology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Laurence Gaume", "Yoel Forterre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Capture_property_of_the_digestive_fluid_of_Nepenthes_rafflesiana_/611907", "title"=>"Capture property of the digestive fluid of <i>Nepenthes rafflesiana.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-11-21 00:31:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/463933", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/463976", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/464037", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/464081"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The carnivorous plants of the genus <em>Nepenthes,</em> widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of <em>Nepenthes rafflesiana</em> is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>This finding challenges the common classification of <em>Nepenthes</em> pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of <em>Nepenthes</em> species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (<em>Drosera</em>) flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viscoelastic", "carnivorous", "plants"], "article_id"=>151463, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Cancer", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Laurence Gaume", "Yoel Forterre"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Viscoelastic_Deadly_Fluid_in_Carnivorous_Pitcher_Plants/151463", "title"=>"A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-11-21 00:24:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941658"], "description"=>"<p>The red dotted vertical line materializes the abrupt transition in capture rate for insects (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185#pone-0001185-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1b</a>). (a) Extensional viscosity (white squares) and shear viscosity (white circles) of the pure fluid and diluted solutions, normalized by the shear viscosity of water (solid line, <i>η</i><sup>water</sup> = 0.0012 Pa.s, measured in the same condition). Shear viscosity is plotted for  = 40 s<sup>−1</sup> and extensional viscosity is plotted for <i>E</i> = 4, the typical shear rate and extensional strain of the fluid imposed by insect motion respectively. (b) Elastic relaxation time <i>λ</i> of the pure fluid and diluted solutions (M±min-max of 10 fluids from 10 pitchers of 7 plants).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dilution", "viscoelastic", "digestive"], "article_id"=>612079, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Virology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Laurence Gaume", "Yoel Forterre"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001185.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_dilution_on_the_viscoelastic_properties_of_the_digestive_fluid_/612079", "title"=>"Effect of dilution on the viscoelastic properties of the digestive fluid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-11-21 00:34:39"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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