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{"title"=>"Life depends upon two kinds of water", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Philippa", "last_name"=>"Wiggins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006787396"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-39049119768", "sgr"=>"39049119768", "pui"=>"351234081", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"18183287", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0001406"}, "id"=>"e5d2ec94-37eb-392c-a193-972474d44082", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Many well-documented biochemical processes lack a molecular mechanism. Examples are: how ATP hydrolysis and an enzyme contrive to perform work, such as active transport; how peptides are formed from amino acids and DNA from nucleotides; how proteases cleave peptide bonds, how bone mineralses; how enzymes distinguish between sodium and potassium; how chirality of biopolymers was established prebiotically.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It is shown that involvement of water in all these processes is mandatory, but the water must be of the simplified configuration in which there are only two strengths of water-water hydrogen bonds, and in which these two types of water coexist as microdomains throughout the liquid temperature range. Since they have different strengths of hydrogen bonds, the microdomains differ in all their physical and chemical properties. Solutes partition asymmetrically, generating osmotic pressure gradients which must be compensated for or abolished. Displacement of the equilibrium between high and low density waters incurs a thermodynamic cost which limits solubility, depresses ionisation of water, drives protein folding and prevents high density water from boiling at its intrinsic boiling point which appears to be below 0 degrees C. Active processes in biochemistry take place in sequential partial reactions, most of which release small amounts of free energy as heat. This ensures that the system is never far from equilibrium so that efficiency is extremely high. Energy transduction is neither possible and nor necessary. Chirality was probably established in prebiotic clays which must have carried stable populations of high density and low density water domains. Bioactive enantiomorphs partition into low density water in which they polymerise spontaneously.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The simplified model of water has great explanatory power.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/life-depends-upon-two-kinds-water", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>6, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>9, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Germany"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939203"], "description"=>"<p>At higher concentrations of KCl dextran sulphate precipitated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["solutes", "viscosity", "dextran", "sulphate", "solutions", "concentrations", "ml"], "article_id"=>609647, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Immunology", "Chemistry", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Philippa Wiggins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001406.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_solutes_on_the_viscosity_of_dextran_sulphate_solutions_at_concentrations_of_1_g_dextran_sulphate_in_3_ml_water_/609647", "title"=>"Effects of solutes on the viscosity of dextran sulphate solutions at concentrations of 1 g dextran sulphate in 3 ml water.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:14:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939115"], "description"=>"<p>The eluting solution contained 100 mM butanol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["20", "mm", "d-and", "l-glucose", "p-4", "prewashed", "100"], "article_id"=>609551, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Immunology", "Chemistry", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Philippa Wiggins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001406.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_partial_separation_of_20_mM_D_and_20_mM_L_glucose_on_a_P_4_column_prewashed_with_100_mM_butanol_/609551", "title"=>"A partial separation of 20 mM D-and 20 mM L-glucose on a P-4 column, prewashed with 100 mM butanol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:14:17"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939340"], "description"=>"<p>Boiling points of Hydrides near Oxygen in the Periodic table</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["points", "hydrides", "periodic"], "article_id"=>609784, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Immunology", "Chemistry", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Philippa Wiggins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001406.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boiling_points_of_Hydrides_near_Oxygen_in_the_Periodic_table_/609784", "title"=>"Boiling points of Hydrides near Oxygen in the Periodic table", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:15:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939049"], "description"=>"<p>The positions of the maxima of the OH stretch band in water inside dense cellulose acetate membranes equilibrated with water and various solutions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["positions", "maxima", "cellulose", "acetate", "membranes", "equilibrated"], "article_id"=>609491, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Immunology", "Chemistry", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Philippa Wiggins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001406.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_positions_of_the_maxima_of_the_OH_stretch_band_in_water_inside_dense_cellulose_acetate_membranes_equilibrated_with_water_and_various_solutions_/609491", "title"=>"The positions of the maxima of the OH stretch band in water inside dense cellulose acetate membranes equilibrated with water and various solutions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:13:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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