Patterns of Neurogenesis and Amplitude of Reelin Expression Are Essential for Making a Mammalian-Type Cortex
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{"title"=>"Patterns of neurogenesis and amplitude of reelin expression are essential for making a mammalian-type cortex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tadashi", "last_name"=>"Nomura", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403421789"}, {"first_name"=>"Masanori", "last_name"=>"Takahashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55627876199"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshinobu", "last_name"=>"Hara", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197654872"}, {"first_name"=>"Osumi", "last_name"=>"Noriko", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004089483"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"351249802", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0001454", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-39149102869", "pmid"=>"18197264", "sgr"=>"39149102869"}, "id"=>"c9d3c874-3b42-3b72-855e-14e9054cf4a4", "abstract"=>"The mammalian neocortex is characterized as a six-layered laminar structure, in which distinct types of pyramidal neurons are distributed coordinately during embryogenesis. In contrast, no other vertebrate class possesses a brain region that is strictly analogous to the neocortical structure. Although it is widely accepted that the pallium, a dorsal forebrain region, is specified in all vertebrate species, little is known of the differential mechanisms underlying laminated or non-laminated structures in the pallium. Here we show that differences in patterns of neuronal specification and migration provide the pallial architectonic diversity. We compared the neurogenesis in mammalian and avian pallium, focusing on subtype-specific gene expression, and found that the avian pallium generates distinct types of neurons in a spatially restricted manner. Furthermore, expression of Reelin gene is hardly detected in the developing avian pallium, and an experimental increase in Reelin-positive cells in the avian pallium modified radial fiber organization, which resulted in dramatic changes in the morphology of migrating neurons. Our results demonstrate that distinct mechanisms govern the patterns of neuronal specification in mammalian and avian pallial development, and that Reelin-dependent neuronal migration plays a critical role in mammalian type corticogenesis. These lines of evidence shed light on the developmental programs underlying the evolution of the mammalian specific laminated cortex.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/patterns-neurogenesis-amplitude-reelin-expression-essential-making-mammaliantype-cortex", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939736"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) Whole-mount (A) and coronal section (B) of E6 embryos in which GFP-expression vector were electroporated into the lateral pallium (LP). Arrow indicates the electroporated site. (C-C″) Immunohistochemistry indicates the LP-derived GFP-labeled cells express Brn2. (D–F) Whole-mount (D) and coronal sections (E and F) of the E7 telencephalon in which GFP was electroporated into the medial pallium (MP). The MP-derived GFP-positive cells (arrows) contribute to the <i>Er81</i>-positive region. Scale bars, 100 µm and 10 µm in whole mount and sections, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brn2", "cells", "quail"], "article_id"=>610183, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Origins_of_Brn2_and_Er81_positive_cells_in_the_quail_telencephalon_/610183", "title"=>"Origins of Brn2 and <i>Er81</i>-positive cells in the quail telencephalon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:03:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940088"], "description"=>"<p>(A–F) Expression patterns of Pax6/PAX6 and <i>Dbx1/DBX1</i> in E12.5 mouse (A and B), E14.5 rat (C) and E4.5 quail (D–F) embryos. Immunostaining with anti-Pax6 (A) and PAX6 (D) antibodies reveal pallial regions in these species (arrows in A, B, D and E). <i>In situ</i> hybridization with rat <i>Dbx1</i> (B and C) and quail <i>DBX1</i> (E and F) probes demonstrate expression of <i>Dbx1</i> in the mouse ventral pallium (B) but not in the quail ventral pallium (E). (G–I) Induction of Reelin-positive cells in the quail pallium by overexpression of <i>Dbx1</i>. <i>Dbx1</i> expression vector is electroporated at E4 embryos (G). After 3 days of electroporation, a large number of Reelin-positive cells are generated in the quail pallium (H). All of Reelin-expressing cells are positive for co-electroporated GFP (I and I′). Scale bar: 200 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reelin-positive", "cells", "quail", "pallium"], "article_id"=>610536, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Induction_of_Reelin_positive_cells_in_the_quail_pallium_by_Dbx1_/610536", "title"=>"Induction of Reelin-positive cells in the quail pallium by <i>Dbx1.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:08:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940222"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) Changes in radial fiber projection patterns in E10 telencephali by <i>Dbx1</i> misexpression. Compared with control (A), straight projection of radial fibers is evident in the <i>Dbx1</i>-misexpressed pallium (arrows in B). (C–E) Morphological changes in migrating neurons by <i>Dbx1</i>-misexpression. In control, GFP-labeled migrating neurons extend many short processes (arrowheads in C). In contrast, In <i>Dbx1</i>-misexpressed pallium, migrating neurons display a bipolar shape (D), and attached to the radial fibers (arrowheads in E). Each radial fiber extends to the Reelin-positive cells localized at the pial surface (an arrow in F). Scale bars, 50 µm (B), 20 µm (D), 10 µm (F, G).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reelin-positive", "cells", "morphology", "migrating"], "article_id"=>610665, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_increase_of_Reelin_positive_cells_changes_morphology_of_migrating_neurons_/610665", "title"=>"An increase of Reelin-positive cells changes morphology of migrating neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:11:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462723", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462755", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462802", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462837", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462871", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462937"], "description"=>"<div><p>The mammalian neocortex is characterized as a six-layered laminar structure, in which distinct types of pyramidal neurons are distributed coordinately during embryogenesis. In contrast, no other vertebrate class possesses a brain region that is strictly analogous to the neocortical structure. Although it is widely accepted that the pallium, a dorsal forebrain region, is specified in all vertebrate species, little is known of the differential mechanisms underlying laminated or non-laminated structures in the pallium. Here we show that differences in patterns of neuronal specification and migration provide the pallial architectonic diversity. We compared the neurogenesis in mammalian and avian pallium, focusing on subtype-specific gene expression, and found that the avian pallium generates distinct types of neurons in a spatially restricted manner. Furthermore, expression of <em>Reelin</em> gene is hardly detected in the developing avian pallium, and an experimental increase in Reelin-positive cells in the avian pallium modified radial fiber organization, which resulted in dramatic changes in the morphology of migrating neurons. Our results demonstrate that distinct mechanisms govern the patterns of neuronal specification in mammalian and avian pallial development, and that Reelin-dependent neuronal migration plays a critical role in mammalian type corticogenesis. These lines of evidence shed light on the developmental programs underlying the evolution of the mammalian specific laminated cortex.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "neurogenesis", "amplitude", "reelin", "are", "making", "mammalian-type", "cortex"], "article_id"=>151210, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Patterns_of_Neurogenesis_and_Amplitude_of_Reelin_Expression_Are_Essential_for_Making_a_Mammalian_Type_Cortex/151210", "title"=>"Patterns of Neurogenesis and Amplitude of Reelin Expression Are Essential for Making a Mammalian-Type Cortex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:20:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939456"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Coronal sections of P0 rat and quail telencephalon. The pallial region (green) can be compared as a homologous field in rodents and birds. Ncx, neocortex; Hp, hippocampus; Str, striatum; Pcx, piriform cortex. HA, hyperpallium apicale; M, mesopallium; N, nidopallium. (B and C) <i>In situ</i> hybridization with <i>Reelin</i> probe (B) and immunohistochemistry with anti-Reelin antibody (C) in the rat and quail telencephali. The number of Reelin-positive cells in the quail pallium (E4) is smaller compared with that in the rat pallium (E13.5). Arrows and arrowheads indicate Reelin-positive cells in the cortex and piriform cortex, respectively. MP, medial pallium; DP, dorsal pallium; LP, lateral pallium. (D and E) Expression patterns of <i>Er81</i> and Brn2 in the mouse (P4) and quail pallia (P0). <i>Er81</i> is expressed in the cortical layer V, hippocampus, amygdala and striatum, whereas Brn2 is mainly expressed in cortical layer II/III in the mouse telencephalon. In the quail telencephalon, <i>Er81</i> is expressed in the hippocampus, area parahippocampalis (Aph), arcopallium (Acp) and striatum. Brn2 expression is also detected in the quail hyperpallium apical (HA), mesopallim (M) and a part of nidopallium (N). Scale bars, 200 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "neuronal", "specification", "mammalian", "avian"], "article_id"=>609899, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distinct_patterns_of_neuronal_specification_between_the_mammalian_and_avian_telencephalon_/609899", "title"=>"Distinct patterns of neuronal specification between the mammalian and avian telencephalon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 02:44:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940356"], "description"=>"<p>(Left) Without Reelin-positive cells, radial glial cells (RG) extend fibers in multiple orientations. Neurons migrate independently, and exhibit a multi-polar shape (a, b). (Right) In the presence of Reelin-expressing cells at the pial surface (magenta), RG fibers are directed toward the source of Reelin. Migrating neurons shorten their own fibers for translocation (c) or attach to RG fibers for locomotion (d). Neurons exhibit a polarized shape during and after migration (e).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reelin-positive", "cells", "vertebrate"], "article_id"=>610798, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_role_of_Reelin_positive_cells_in_the_developing_vertebrate_pallium_/610798", "title"=>"A role of Reelin-positive cells in the developing vertebrate pallium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:13:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939969"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic illustration of slice culture. After GFP plasmid electroporation, quail embryonic slices (E7) are co-cultured with Reelin and/or RFP-expressing COS7 cells (magenta). (B and C) Patterns of radial glial fiber extension in slices with control cells (B) and with Reelin-expressing cells (C). Straight projection of GFP-labeled radial fibers is evident with Reelin-expressing cells compared with control cells. (D) Quantification of radial fiber orientation. The parallel index (PI) of radial fibers was calculated by dividing the maximum distance between adjacent radial fibers by the minimum distance. Differences in PI between slices with control and Reelin-expressing cells were analyzed statistically (F-test). PI is reduced in Reelin-treated slices compared with that in control slices. Asterisks indicate statistically significance (p<0.01, F-test). Scale bar, 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["controls", "directed", "radial"], "article_id"=>610415, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reelin_controls_directed_growth_of_radial_fibers_/610415", "title"=>"Reelin controls directed growth of radial fibers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:06:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939591"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) GFP-labeled cells in E4.5 quail telencephalon, in which GFP-expression vector was electroporated into the hem (A) or septum (Spt; B) at E3.5. Arrows indicate migrating GFP-positive cells. r: rostral, c: caudal. (C and C′) Expression of Reelin in the GFP-positive, hem-derived cells. (D) Coronal sections of the telencephalon in which GFP-plasmid was electroporated into the ventral pallium (VP). (E) The VP-derived GFP-positive cells (arrows) do not express Reelin. Arrowheads indicate Reelin-positive cells, which might be derived from the hem region. Scale bars, 200 µm (A, B, D), 50 µm (C, E).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reelin-positive", "cells", "quail"], "article_id"=>610040, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Origins_of_Reelin_positive_cells_in_the_developing_quail_telencephalon_/610040", "title"=>"Origins of Reelin-positive cells in the developing quail telencephalon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/939858"], "description"=>"<p>In the developing mammalian telencephalon, Reelin-positive neurons are derived from several origins including ventral pallium, and Er81 and Brn2-positive neurons are isotopically generated from entire pallial regions in a temporal manner. In contrast, in the developing avian telencephalon, Reelin-positive neurons are not derived from the ventral pallium, and Er81 and Brn2-positive neurons are generated from distinct pallial regions in a spatially regulated manner.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "neuronal", "specification", "patterns", "mammalian", "avian"], "article_id"=>610298, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Tadashi Nomura", "Masanori Takahashi", "Yoshinobu Hara", "Noriko Osumi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001454.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_illustration_of_differences_in_neuronal_specification_and_migration_patterns_between_the_mammalian_and_avian_pallium_/610298", "title"=>"Schematic illustration of differences in neuronal specification and migration patterns between the mammalian and avian pallium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-16 00:04:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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