Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention
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{"title"=>"Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Toby G.", "last_name"=>"Knowles"}, {"first_name"=>"Steve C.", "last_name"=>"Kestin"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan M.", "last_name"=>"Haslam"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven N.", "last_name"=>"Brown"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura E.", "last_name"=>"Green"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Butterworth"}, {"first_name"=>"Stuart J.", "last_name"=>"Pope"}, {"first_name"=>"Dirk", "last_name"=>"Pfeiffer"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine J.", "last_name"=>"Nicol"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"18253493", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0001545", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"bfd95ee6-f514-3c63-8586-55f3f091e357", "abstract"=>"Broiler (meat) chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day). There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds), visit (second visit to same flock), bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10) broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/leg-disorders-broiler-chickens-prevalence-risk-factors-prevention-2", "reader_count"=>133, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Unspecified"=>10, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>87, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>13, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>87}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>13}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938007"], "description"=>"<p>A modelling exercise reveals the extent to which average flock gait score might be improved (i.e. lowered from a notional average score of 2.5) by adoption of the ‘best’ management practice for each variable that we recorded within our study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reveals", "flock", "gait", "lowered", "notional", "recorded"], "article_id"=>608433, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_modelling_exercise_reveals_the_extent_to_which_average_flock_gait_score_might_be_improved_i_e_lowered_from_a_notional_average_score_of_2_5_by_adoption_of_the_8216_best_8217_management_practice_for_each_variable_that_we_recorded_within_our_study_/608433", "title"=>"A modelling exercise reveals the extent to which average flock gait score might be improved (i.e. lowered from a notional average score of 2.5) by adoption of the ‘best’ management practice for each variable that we recorded within our study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 02:20:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938077"], "description"=>"<p>Mean, minimum and maximum values of the continuous predictor variables in the model of average flock gait score.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predictor", "variables", "flock", "gait"], "article_id"=>608516, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_minimum_and_maximum_values_of_the_continuous_predictor_variables_in_the_model_of_average_flock_gait_score_/608516", "title"=>"Mean, minimum and maximum values of the continuous predictor variables in the model of average flock gait score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 02:21:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938110"], "description"=>"<p>Mean, SD, minimum and maximum for flocks are shown. The values are calculated from flock averages weighted by birds placed and include first and second visits. Total birds placed n = 4,845,962. Total birds gait scored-206 flocks×minimum of 250 birds per flock-n is approximately 51,000.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds", "gait"], "article_id"=>608549, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_estimated_percentage_of_birds_in_the_survey_population_within_each_gait_score_category_/608549", "title"=>"The estimated percentage of birds in the survey population within each gait score category.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 02:22:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938143"], "description"=>"<p>The parameter estimates give the amount of change in average flock gait score for a unit change in each variable. Note, as explained in the text, factors are not and cannot be arranged in order of importance. Positive parameter estimates mean that an increase in the value of a variable is associated with an increase in flock average gait score and negative parameter estimate, a decrease.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameter", "flock", "gait"], "article_id"=>608584, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_parameter_estimates_their_standard_error_and_significance_for_the_model_of_average_flock_gait_score_/608584", "title"=>"The parameter estimates, their standard error and significance for the model of average flock gait score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 02:23:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462415", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462456", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462491", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462529", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462564", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462608", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462658"], "description"=>"<div><p>Broiler (meat) chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day). There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds), visit (second visit to same flock), bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2×10<sup>10</sup> broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disorders", "broiler", "factors"], "article_id"=>151129, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Leg_Disorders_in_Broiler_Chickens_Prevalence_Risk_Factors_and_Prevention/151129", "title"=>"Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 00:18:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/937910"], "description"=>"<p>The modelled seasonal change in average flock gait score.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modelled", "seasonal", "flock", "gait"], "article_id"=>608347, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_modelled_seasonal_change_in_average_flock_gait_score_/608347", "title"=>"The modelled seasonal change in average flock gait score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 02:19:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938180"], "description"=>"<p>The table also shows the mean gait score and the number of birds represented in terms of birds placed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds", "gait"], "article_id"=>608622, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Physiology", "Genetics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Toby G. Knowles", "Steve C. Kestin", "Susan M. Haslam", "Steven N. Brown", "Laura E. Green", "Andrew Butterworth", "Stuart J. Pope", "Dirk Pfeiffer", "Christine J. Nicol"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_percentage_of_birds_in_each_gait_score_category_by_producer_and_by_first_and_second_visit_/608622", "title"=>"The percentage of birds in each gait score category by producer and by first and second visit.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-02-06 02:23:42"}

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Relative Metric

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