Baselines and Degradation of Coral Reefs in the Northern Line Islands
Publication Date
February 27, 2008
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Stuart A. Sandin, Jennifer E. Smith, Edward E. De Martini, Elizabeth A. Dinsdale, et al
Volume
3
Issue
2
Pages
e1548
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001548
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18301734
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2244711
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/18301734
Web of Science
000260586500001
Scopus
40149088432
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/baselines-degradation-coral-reefs-northern-line-islands-1
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Most coral reefs are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed coral reefs on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of reef community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and reef-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. Reefs without people exhibited less coral disease and greater coral recruitment relative to more inhabited reefs. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming. Citation: Sandin SA, Smith JE, DeMartini EE, Dinsdale EA, Donner SD, et al (2008) Baselines and Degradation of Coral Reefs in the Northern Line Islands. PLoS ONE 3(2): e1548.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/baselines-degradation-coral-reefs-northern-line-islands-1", "reader_count"=>833, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>28, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>182, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>189, "Student > Postgraduate"=>39, "Student > Master"=>168, "Other"=>41, "Student > Bachelor"=>112, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>20}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>28, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>182, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461544", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461634", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461677", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461715", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461754", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461780", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461799", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461841", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/461869"], "description"=>"<div><p>Effective conservation requires rigorous baselines of pristine conditions to assess the impacts of human activities and to evaluate the efficacy of management. Most coral reefs are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed coral reefs on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of reef community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and reef-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. Reefs without people exhibited less coral disease and greater coral recruitment relative to more inhabited reefs. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["baselines", "degradation", "coral", "reefs", "islands"], "article_id"=>150950, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Baselines_and_Degradation_of_Coral_Reefs_in_the_Northern_Line_Islands/150950", "title"=>"Baselines and Degradation of Coral Reefs in the Northern Line Islands", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 00:15:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/936468"], "description"=>"<p>Sites were located at semi-exposed fore reef habitats between 10 and 12 m in depth, and approximately one km apart from each other. Reef fishes were surveyed at all sites (n = 25 sites per atoll), and benthic communities at a subset of sites (n = 10–12 sites per atoll).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "tabuaeran", "kiritimati", "atolls"], "article_id"=>606903, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_study_sites_at_Kingman_Palmyra_Tabuaeran_and_Kiritimati_atolls_in_the_Line_Islands_/606903", "title"=>"Location of study sites at Kingman, Palmyra, Tabuaeran and Kiritimati atolls in the Line Islands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 01:55:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/936723"], "description"=>"<p>Photo credits: A by Zafer Kizilkaya, B–H by Jennifer Smith.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fore", "reef", "habitats", "photos", "kingman", "palmyra", "tabuaeran", "kiritimati", "degradation", "dominated", "predators", "corals", "planktivorous", "fishes"], "article_id"=>607136, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_aspect_of_fore_reef_habitats_left_column_and_representative_0_5_m2_photos_of_the_bottom_right_column_at_Kingman_A_8211_B_Palmyra_C_8211_D_Tabuaeran_E_8211_F_and_Kiritimati_G_8211_H_showing_the_degradation_from_a_reef_dominated_by_top_predators_an/607136", "title"=>"General aspect of fore reef habitats (left column) and representative 0.5-m2 photos of the bottom (right column) at Kingman (A–B), Palmyra (C–D), Tabuaeran (E–F), and Kiritimati (G–H), showing the degradation from a reef dominated by top predators and corals (Kingman) to a reef dominated by small planktivorous fishes and algae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 01:58:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/936899"], "description"=>"<p>Note that human impacts increase from left to right in this and subsequent figures. CCA = crustose coralline algae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomass", "abundance", "benthic", "groups"], "article_id"=>607326, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fish_biomass_A_and_abundance_B_and_cover_of_major_benthic_functional_groups_C_across_the_northern_Line_Islands_/607326", "title"=>"Fish biomass (A) and abundance (B), and cover of major benthic functional groups (C) across the northern Line Islands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 02:02:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/937019"], "description"=>"<p>Because recession in adult corals can often lead to fragmentation and the development of many small colonies that may have all been part of one larger colony, recruits are defined here as colonies less than 5 cm in diameter from coral taxa demonstrating essentially unidirectional growth (i.e., Acropora, Pocillopora and Fungiids), and thus represent individuals known to be young relative to larger individuals. Note that there were no colonies larger than 160 cm at Kiritimati.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["corals", "coral", "prevalence"], "article_id"=>607446, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Size_frequency_distribution_of_corals_A_and_coral_disease_prevalence_and_recruit_density_B_across_the_northern_Line_Islands_/607446", "title"=>"Size frequency distribution of corals (A), and coral disease prevalence and recruit density (B) across the northern Line Islands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 02:04:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/937149"], "description"=>"<p>Atolls cluster in sequence along the first principal component axis (PC1), shifting from left to right from Kingman to Kiritimati. The major loadings on PC1 include biomass of top predatory fish, coral and CCA cover (to left, i.e., decreasing disturbance) and turf algal cover (to right, i.e., increasing disturbance). Note that herbivore biomass, the putative intermediate in models of simple trophic cascades, is orthogonal to the dominant axis correlated with apex predators.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["benthic", "groups", "sites", "photoquadrat", "kingman"], "article_id"=>607575, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_component_analysis_PCA_of_major_fish_and_benthic_groups_from_all_sites_with_photoquadrat_data_n_8202_8202_10_per_atoll_except_Kingman_with_n_8202_8202_9_/607575", "title"=>"Principal component analysis (PCA) of major fish and benthic groups from all sites with photoquadrat data (n = 10 per atoll, except Kingman with n = 9).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 02:06:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/937279"], "description"=>"<p>Quantitative environment and biota data are presented as means with variability presented as either standard error (reported with ‘±’), standard deviation (reported in parentheses), or 95% confidence intervals (reported in braces). Abbreviations are as follows: SST, Sea surface temperature; DHW, Degree heating weeks; Chl <i>a</i>, Chlorophyll <i>a</i>; DIN, Dissolved inorganic nitrogen; SRP, Soluble reactive phosphorous. Details on the estimations and calculations are presented in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> and Supplemental Data.</p>a<p>Unpublished data from NOAA Fisheries, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Coral Reef Ecosystem Division and US Fish and Wildlife Service. These data were collected using similar methods as those used in this study.</p>b<p>This study</p>c<p>NOAA data showed a total fish biomass of 1020 g m<sup>−2</sup> and 49% coral cover at Kingman, and 520 g m<sup>−2</sup> and 45% at Palmyra. Differences in estimates of biomass across the different data sets may be due to a difference in sampling effort, higher variability in habitat types in the NOAA data, and changes over time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pacific", "islands", "equatorial"], "article_id"=>607706, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stuart A. Sandin", "Jennifer E. Smith", "Edward E. DeMartini", "Elizabeth A. Dinsdale", "Simon D. Donner", "Alan M. Friedlander", "Talina Konotchick", "Machel Malay", "James E. Maragos", "David Obura", "Olga Pantos", "Gustav Paulay", "Morgan Richie", "Forest Rohwer", "Robert E. Schroeder", "Sheila Walsh", "Jeremy B. C. Jackson", "Nancy Knowlton", "Enric Sala"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001548.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_seven_central_Pacific_atolls_including_the_four_northern_Line_Islands_and_three_additional_equatorial_atolls_/607706", "title"=>"Characteristics of the seven central Pacific atolls, including the four northern Line Islands and three additional equatorial atolls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-02-27 02:08:26"}

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Relative Metric

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