Pollutants Increase Song Complexity and the Volume of the Brain Area HVC in a Songbird
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{"title"=>"Pollutants increase song complexity and the volume of the brain area HVC in a songbird", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Shai", "last_name"=>"Markman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004079334"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Leitner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003730480"}, {"first_name"=>"Clive", "last_name"=>"Catchpole", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003701868"}, {"first_name"=>"Sara", "last_name"=>"Barnsley", "scopus_author_id"=>"22940355700"}, {"first_name"=>"Carsten T.", "last_name"=>"Müller", "scopus_author_id"=>"26024901800"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Pascoe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005334184"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine L.", "last_name"=>"Buchanan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101885486"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"351877719", "sgr"=>"45849084976", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"18301751", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-45849084976", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0001674", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"2c9c4745-f54d-33d0-83ac-2e9f7b61dfad", "abstract"=>"Environmental pollutants which alter endocrine function are now known to decrease vertebrate reproductive success. There is considerable evidence for endocrine disruption from aquatic ecosystems, but knowledge is lacking with regard to the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, we show for the first time that birds foraging on invertebrates contaminated with environmental pollutants, show marked changes in both brain and behaviour. We found that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of synthetic and natural estrogen mimics developed longer and more complex songs compared to control males, a sexually selected trait important in attracting females for reproduction. Moreover, females preferred the song of males which had higher pollutant exposure, despite the fact that experimentally dosed males showed reduced immune function. We also show that the key brain area controlling male song complexity (HVC) is significantly enlarged in the contaminated birds. This is the first evidence that environmental pollutants not only affect, but paradoxically enhance a signal of male quality such as song. Our data suggest that female starlings would bias their choice towards exposed males, with possible consequences at the population level. As the starling is a migratory species, our results suggest that transglobal effects of pollutants on terrestrial vertebrate physiology and reproduction could occur in birds.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pollutants-increase-song-complexity-volume-brain-area-hvc-songbird", "reader_count"=>73, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Korea (South)"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940038"], "description"=>"<p>The immune function of male starlings in three treatment groups; control (open bars); E2 dosed (hatched bars); and the chemical mixture dosed (black bars) (a) Cell-mediated immune function was measured as wing web swelling of both wings, 24 hours after injection with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Treatment had a significant effect on cell-mediated immune function (ANOVA, <i>F</i><sub>2, 32</sub> = 12.16, <i>P</i><0.001). Bonferroni pairwise comparison post-hoc tests showed that the immune function of males in both chemically dosed groups (E2 or mixture) was significantly lower than that of the control males (E2 versus control <i>P</i><0.001, mixture versus control <i>P</i> = 0.001) but there was no significant difference between males in the E2 and mixture groups (<i>P</i>>0.05). (b) The secondary humoral response following an intraperitoneal injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Treatment had a significant effect on the secondary humoral response to SRBC (ANOVA, <i>F</i><sub>2, 32</sub> = 10.98, <i>P</i><0.001). Bonferroni pairwise comparison post-hoc tests showed that the mean response of the males in both dosed groups (E2 or mixture), was significantly lower than the mean of the control males (E2 versus control <i>P</i><0.001, mixture versus control <i>P</i> = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the E2 treated and the mixture treated males (<i>P</i>>0.05). Graphs show means+s.e.m. ** indicates <i>P</i><0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["starlings", "exposed"], "article_id"=>610472, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Shai Markman", "Stefan Leitner", "Clive Catchpole", "Sara Barnsley", "Carsten T. Müller", "David Pascoe", "Katherine L. Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001674.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immune_function_in_male_starlings_exposed_to_chemicals_/610472", "title"=>"Immune function in male starlings exposed to chemicals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:20:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940350"], "description"=>"<p>The percentage of time spent by females on the perch adjacent to song playback from male starlings in the three treatment groups; control (open bars); E2 dosed (hatched bars); and chemical mixture dosed (black bars). Playback from the mixture group was preferred over playback from E2 dosed males (<i>t</i><sub>10</sub> = 2.42, <i>P</i> = 0.035); Playback from the mixture group was preferred over song from control males (<i>t</i><sub>9</sub> = 2.57, <i>P</i> = 0.029). There was no significant preference between control and E2 dosed playback (<i>P</i>>0.05); Graphs show mean+s.e.m. * = <i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preferences"], "article_id"=>610786, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Shai Markman", "Stefan Leitner", "Clive Catchpole", "Sara Barnsley", "Carsten T. Müller", "David Pascoe", "Katherine L. Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001674.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Song_preferences_in_female_starlings_/610786", "title"=>"Song preferences in female starlings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940261"], "description"=>"<p>a) HVC volume (mean+s.e.m.) in the three treatment groups; control (open bars); E2 dosed (hatched bars); and the chemical mixture dosed (black bars) (ANOVA, <i>F</i><sub>2, 32</sub> = 4.46, <i>P</i> = 0.019). HVC volume of the males in the mixture group was significantly larger than in males in the control group (Bonferroni pairwise comparison post-hoc tests <i>P</i> = 0.032), but there were no significant differences in the HVC volume between males in the E2 and control groups (<i>P</i>>0.05) or between males in the E2 and mixture groups (<i>P</i>>0.05) * = <i>P</i><0.05. b) Photomicrograph of an HVC from (i) a chemical mixture treated male and (ii) a control male. Arrows indicate the borders of HVC. Scale bar = 200 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["starlings", "exposed"], "article_id"=>610695, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Shai Markman", "Stefan Leitner", "Clive Catchpole", "Sara Barnsley", "Carsten T. Müller", "David Pascoe", "Katherine L. Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001674.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HVC_size_in_male_starlings_exposed_to_chemicals_/610695", "title"=>"HVC size in male starlings exposed to chemicals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:21:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/940146"], "description"=>"<p>The song production of male starlings in three treatment groups: control (open bars); E2 dosed (hatched bars); and the chemical mixture dosed (black bars) (a) Total time spent singing (sec/h). (b) Number of song bouts per hour. (c) Song bout duration (s) d) Repertoire size. Graphs show means+s.e.m. There was a significant effect of the experimental manipulation on the time spent singing between the treatment groups (ANOVA, <i>F<sub>2, 24</sub></i> = 6.15, <i>P</i> = 0.007). Bonferroni pairwise comparison post-hoc tests showed that the males that received the mixture of chemicals spent significantly longer singing than the control males (<i>P</i> = 0.009) and the E2 group (<i>P</i> = 0.028). There was a significant effect of treatment on the number of song bouts sung by the males (ANOVA, <i>F<sub>2, 23</sub></i> = 9.16, <i>P</i> = 0.001). Males in the mixture treatment group sang more song bouts than the control males (<i>P</i> = 0.004) and the E2 males (<i>P</i> = 0.002). Mean song bout duration was significantly longer for males in the mixture treatment group compared to the control males (ANOVA, <i>F<sub>1, 11</sub></i> = 5.842, <i>P</i> = 0.034). Finally, there was a significant effect of the experimental manipulation on the repertoire size of male starlings (ANOVA <i>F<sub>2, 16</sub></i> = 4.39, <i>P</i> = 0.030). The males in the mixture group had significantly greater repertoire size than males in the control group (Bonferroni pairwise comparison post-hoc tests <i>P</i> = 0.042). * = <i>P</i><0.05; ** = <i>P</i><0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["starlings", "exposed"], "article_id"=>610583, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Neuroscience", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Shai Markman", "Stefan Leitner", "Clive Catchpole", "Sara Barnsley", "Carsten T. Müller", "David Pascoe", "Katherine L. Buchanan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001674.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Song_production_in_male_starlings_exposed_to_chemicals_/610583", "title"=>"Song production in male starlings exposed to chemicals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:20:44"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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