Electronically Switchable Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) System
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Electroncally switchable sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fumiko", "last_name"=>"Hoeft", "scopus_author_id"=>"15061514800"}, {"first_name"=>"Daw An", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404297766"}, {"first_name"=>"Arvel", "last_name"=>"Hernandez", "scopus_author_id"=>"15061550000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary H.", "last_name"=>"Glover", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197904885"}, {"first_name"=>"Shinsuke", "last_name"=>"Shimojo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005960997"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"44849108432", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-44849108432", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"351984122", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0001923", "pmid"=>"18398456"}, "id"=>"2105142a-550e-39d0-a61d-97a62faa8b5d", "abstract"=>"Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse) without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/electroncally-switchable-sham-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-system", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933076"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Effects of 1<sup>st</sup> pulse on 2<sup>nd</sup> pulse. Two consecutive pulses were delivered at 10 ms interstimulus interval (ISI) at 50% maximum output and EMF was measured. All EMF values are normalized to the 1<sup>st</sup> pulse. (B) Effects of distance, intensity and position. B-1. EMF measured at varying distances between custom Fig8 or Circ coils and search coil. Values are normalized to those of Standard TMS at 10 mm. B-2. EMF measured at varying TMS intensity with custom Fig8 and Circ coils. Values are normalized to those of Standard TMS at 50% maximal output. For clarity, all plots show data for Reversed pulses as inverted and collapsed with data for Standard pulses, as they showed no significant differences beside their polarities.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reversed", "sham", "tms", "fig8", "circ"], "article_id"=>603521, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Fumiko Hoeft", "Daw-An Wu", "Arvel Hernandez", "Gary H. Glover", "Shinsuke Shimojo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001923.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electromagnetic_force_EMF_measurements_of_Standard_Reversed_and_Sham_TMS_with_Fig8_and_Circ_coils_/603521", "title"=>"Electromagnetic force (EMF) measurements of Standard, Reversed and Sham TMS with Fig8 and Circ coils.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-09 00:58:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933264"], "description"=>"<p>Ability of five naive subjects (Sj1–Sj5; white bars) and two non-naïve investigators (Iv1, Iv2; red bars) to discriminate between stimulus conditions, expressed in terms of d' statistic (higher d' = greater discriminability). Discriminability between Real (Standard or Reversed) vs. Sham TMS through the Fig8 coil with stimulator at 70 and 90% of maximum stimulator output, and through the Circ coil at 50%. Also, discriminability between Standard and Reversed in the Circ coil with stimulator at 90%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "physiology/cognitive neuroscience", "neurological disorders/neuroimaging"], "article_id"=>603714, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Fumiko Hoeft", "Daw-An Wu", "Arvel Hernandez", "Gary H. Glover", "Shinsuke Shimojo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001923.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Perceptual_Discrimination_/603714", "title"=>"Perceptual Discrimination.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-09 01:01:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933192"], "description"=>"<p>Subject motor thresholds are plotted for Standard and Reversed TMS through the Fig8 or Circ coil. Sham stimulation did not elicit muscle potentials even at maximum settings, thus threshold is beyond 100% stimulator output and not plotted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiological"], "article_id"=>603638, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Fumiko Hoeft", "Daw-An Wu", "Arvel Hernandez", "Gary H. Glover", "Shinsuke Shimojo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001923.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Motor_Physiological_Measurements_/603638", "title"=>"Motor Physiological Measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-09 01:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933379"], "description"=>"<p>Subjective ratings for loudness (A) and for pain (B) from three naïve subjects for the three stimulus types. Stimulator was set at 90%. Ratings for stimuli from commercially available coils are included as reference. (C) Maximum sound pressure levels of the same stimuli. Error bars represent standard error of the mean. Comparisons with significant difference are marked with asterisks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "physiology/cognitive neuroscience", "neurological disorders/neuroimaging"], "article_id"=>603825, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Fumiko Hoeft", "Daw-An Wu", "Arvel Hernandez", "Gary H. Glover", "Shinsuke Shimojo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001923.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loudness_and_Pain_Sensation_and_Sound_Levels_/603825", "title"=>"Loudness and Pain Sensation and Sound Levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-09 01:03:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/460261"], "description"=>"<div><p>Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between <em>Standard</em> TMS and two types of control TMS (<em>Sham</em> and <em>Reverse</em>) without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for <em>Reversed</em> than for <em>Standard</em> stimulation, and that <em>Sham</em> stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between <em>Sham</em> and <em>Standard</em> TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between <em>Reverse</em> and <em>Standard</em> TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electronically", "switchable", "sham", "transcranial", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>150699, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Fumiko Hoeft", "Daw-An Wu", "Arvel Hernandez", "Gary H. Glover", "Shinsuke Shimojo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001923", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Electronically_Switchable_Sham_Transcranial_Magnetic_Stimulation_TMS_System/150699", "title"=>"Electronically Switchable Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) System", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-04-09 00:11:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932937"], "description"=>"<p>Electric field for x (top panel) and y (middle panel) axes and strength (bottom panel) are plotted as both color and height on the 3-d images and sas color on the 2-d images. Black circles indicate approximate locations of peaks when commercially available coils are used (Fig8: within annulus, Circ: between the two circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fields", "sham", "tms", "fig8", "circ"], "article_id"=>603372, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Fumiko Hoeft", "Daw-An Wu", "Arvel Hernandez", "Gary H. Glover", "Shinsuke Shimojo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001923.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modeled_Electric_fields_of_Standard_and_Sham_TMS_with_Fig8_A_and_Circ_B_coils_/603372", "title"=>"Modeled Electric fields of Standard and Sham TMS with Fig8 (A) and Circ (B) coils.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-09 00:56:12"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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