Of Mice and Men — Universality and Breakdown of Behavioral Organization
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{"title"=>"Of mice and men - Universality and breakdown of behavioral organization", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Toru", "last_name"=>"Nakamura", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501468859"}, {"first_name"=>"Toru", "last_name"=>"Takumi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004728200"}, {"first_name"=>"Atsuko", "last_name"=>"Takano", "scopus_author_id"=>"55151498300"}, {"first_name"=>"Naoko", "last_name"=>"Aoyagi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005443444"}, {"first_name"=>"Kazuhiro", "last_name"=>"Yoshiuchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701547637"}, {"first_name"=>"Zbigniew R.", "last_name"=>"Struzik", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603737672"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshiharu", "last_name"=>"Yamamoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"8890139400"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"352024772", "sgr"=>"44349130847", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"18446212", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-44349130847", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002050", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"8a2292c4-21a6-319c-a84d-224611780277", "abstract"=>"Mental or cognitive brain functions, and the effect on them of abnormal psychiatric diseases, are difficult to approach through molecular biological techniques due to the lack of appropriate assay systems with objective measures. We therefore study laws of behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life, using objective criteria, and first discover that identical laws hold both for healthy humans subject to the full complexity of daily life, and wild-type mice subject to maximum environmental constraints. We find that active period durations with physical activity counts successively above a predefined threshold, when rescaled with individual means, follow a universal stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution, while resting period durations below the threshold obey a universal power-law cumulative distribution with identical parameter values for both of the mammalian species. Further, by analyzing the behavioral organization of mice with a circadian clock gene (Period2) eliminated, and humans suffering from major depressive disorders, we find significantly lower parameter values (power-law scaling exponents) for the resting period durations in both these cases. Such a universality and breakdown of the behavioral organization of mice and humans, revealed through objective measures, is expected to facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis of the pathophysiology of neurobehavioral diseases, including depression, and lay the foundations for formulating a range of neuropsychiatric behavioral disorder models.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mice-men-universality-breakdown-behavioral-organization", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>6, "Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932408"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Rescaled cumulative distributions of resting period durations with different data resolutions of 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 sec for adolescents. The error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. (b) The same as (a), but for active period durations. (c and d) The same as (a), (b), but for wild-type mice with different data resolutions of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 sec. The straight lines in (a) and (c) are eye-guides with the mean scaling exponent from to 20 as the slope ( in (a) and in (c)).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cumulative", "distributions"], "article_id"=>602849, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dependency_of_cumulative_distributions_on_data_resolutions_/602849", "title"=>"Dependency of cumulative distributions on data resolutions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932246"], "description"=>"<p>Cumulative distributions of resting and active period durations of locomotor activity in healthy humans and wild-type (WT) mice. (a) Cumulative distributions <i>P</i>(<i>x</i>≥<i>a</i>) of resting period durations <i>a</i> for human adolescents (closed triangles), adults (open circles) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050#pone.0002050-Nakamura1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, and WT mice (filled diamonds). The error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. (b) The same as (a), but for active period durations. (c) Group averaged rescaled cumulative distributions of (a). The straight line is an eye-guide with the overall adult mean scaling exponents as the slope. Note that the plots are shifted along the vertical axis to take the same value at for the purpose of illustration. (d) The same as (c), but for active period durations. The solid curve is a stretched exponential function with the overall mean of values; and .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laws"], "article_id"=>602690, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Universal_distribution_laws_of_behavioral_organization_/602690", "title"=>"Universal distribution laws of behavioral organization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932333"], "description"=>"<p>(a and b) Dependency of rescaled cumulative distribution on the threshold used to determine both resting and active periods in adolescents. (a) Rescaled (by the mean resting durations) cumulative distributions of resting period durations , where is the individual mean of the resting period durations, with different threshold values of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 times the overall average for non-zero activity counts. (b) The same as (a), but for active period durations. (c and d) The same as (a), (b), but for wild-type mice. The straight lines in (a) and (c) are eye-guides with the mean scaling exponent from to 20 as the slope, with the threshold value of 1.0 ( in (a) and in (c)). The curves shown in (b) and (d) are stretched exponential functions <i>P</i>(<i>x</i>≥<i>a</i>) = exp(−<i>αa<sup>β</sup></i>) with the mean and in (b) and and in (d), respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "physics/interdisciplinary physics", "mental health/neuropsychiatric disorders"], "article_id"=>602778, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Invariance_of_the_results_with_different_threshold_values_/602778", "title"=>"Invariance of the results with different threshold values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:46:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932150"], "description"=>"<p>Illustrative examples of locomotor activity data for an adolescent (a), a wild-type (WT) mouse (b), a depression patient (c) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050#pone.0002050-Nakamura1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, and a <i>Period2</i> mutant (<i>Per</i>2<i><sup>m</sup></i><sup>/<i>m</i></sup>) mouse (d) over three consecutive days (left panels). The right panels are magnifications of the left panels with 4-hour periods during the 3rd subjective daytime. The overall average of non-zero activity counts is used for a threshold (horizontal dotted line), and the period in which the counts are successively below or above the threshold is coded respectively as a resting (open bar in bottom panels) or active (closed bar) period. Because the body weight varies across individuals, the mice's activity counts in the vertical axis (nVar) are normalized by the mean variance of each record.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locomotor", "humans"], "article_id"=>602593, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fluctuation_of_locomotor_activity_in_humans_and_mice_/602593", "title"=>"Fluctuation of locomotor activity in humans and mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:43:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459500", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459559", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459604", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459650", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459678", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459722", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459778", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459816", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459858"], "description"=>"<div><p>Mental or cognitive brain functions, and the effect on them of abnormal psychiatric diseases, are difficult to approach through molecular biological techniques due to the lack of appropriate assay systems with objective measures. We therefore study laws of behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life, using objective criteria, and first discover that identical laws hold both for healthy humans subject to the full complexity of daily life, and wild-type mice subject to maximum environmental constraints. We find that active period durations with physical activity counts successively above a predefined threshold, when rescaled with individual means, follow a universal stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution, while resting period durations below the threshold obey a universal power-law cumulative distribution with identical parameter values for both of the mammalian species. Further, by analyzing the behavioral organization of mice with a circadian clock gene (<em>Period2</em>) eliminated, and humans suffering from major depressive disorders, we find significantly lower parameter values (power-law scaling exponents) for the resting period durations in both these cases. Such a universality and breakdown of the behavioral organization of mice and humans, revealed through objective measures, is expected to facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis of the pathophysiology of neurobehavioral diseases, including depression, and lay the foundations for formulating a range of neuropsychiatric behavioral disorder models.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mice", "men", "universality", "breakdown"], "article_id"=>150537, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>28, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Of_Mice_and_Men_Universality_and_Breakdown_of_Behavioral_Organization/150537", "title"=>"Of Mice and Men — Universality and Breakdown of Behavioral Organization", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:08:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932540"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Cumulative distributions <i>P</i>(<i>x</i>≥<i>a</i>) of resting period durations for healthy human adults (open circles) and depression patients (closed squares) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050#pone.0002050-Nakamura1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, wild-type (WT) mice (open diamonds) and the <i>Period2</i> mutant (<i>Per</i>2<i><sup>m</sup></i><sup>/<i>m</i></sup>) mice (filled diamonds). The error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. (b) The same as (a), but for active period durations. (c) Group averaged rescaled cumulative distributions for healthy human adults and depression patients, reproduced from our recent study <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050#pone.0002050-Nakamura1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>. (d) The same as (c), but for active period durations. (e) Group averaged rescaled cumulative distributions for WT and <i>Per</i>2<i><sup>m</sup></i><sup>/<i>m</i></sup> mice. (f) The same as (e), but for active period durations. Note that the plots in (d) and (e) are shifted along the vertical axis to take the same value at for the purpose of illustration. The lines are eye-guides with the group mean parameter values in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050#pone-0002050-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "physics/interdisciplinary physics", "mental health/neuropsychiatric disorders"], "article_id"=>602986, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Breakdown_of_the_universal_distribution_laws_/602986", "title"=>"Breakdown of the universal distribution laws.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:49:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932608"], "description"=>"<p>Values are mean±SD. *; <i>p</i><0.05 from healthy adults and adolescents, and wild-type (WT) mice. †; <i>p</i><0.05 from healthy adults and adolescents, and <i>Per</i>2<i><sup>m</sup></i><sup>/<i>m</i></sup> mice. The results for healthy adults and depression patients are reproduced from our recent study <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050#pone.0002050-Nakamura1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>. <i>Per</i>2<i><sup>m</sup></i><sup>/<i>m</i></sup> Mice: <i>Period2</i> mutant mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rescaled", "cumulative"], "article_id"=>603053, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Physics", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Toru Nakamura", "Toru Takumi", "Atsuko Takano", "Naoko Aoyagi", "Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi", "Zbigniew R. Struzik", "Yoshiharu Yamamoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002050.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fitting_parameters_of_rescaled_cumulative_distributions_/603053", "title"=>"Fitting parameters of rescaled cumulative distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-04-30 00:50:53"}

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Relative Metric

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