Parasitoid Increases Survival of Its Pupae by Inducing Hosts to Fight Predators
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{"title"=>"Parasitoid increases survival of its pupae by inducing hosts to fight predators", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Amir H.", "last_name"=>"Grosman", "scopus_author_id"=>"9246481800"}, {"first_name"=>"Arne", "last_name"=>"Janssen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102394399"}, {"first_name"=>"Elaine F.", "last_name"=>"de Brito", "scopus_author_id"=>"24576691000"}, {"first_name"=>"Eduardo G.", "last_name"=>"Cordeiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"24576281100"}, {"first_name"=>"Felipe", "last_name"=>"Colares", "scopus_author_id"=>"24576355200"}, {"first_name"=>"Juliana Oliveira", "last_name"=>"Fonseca", "scopus_author_id"=>"24484613700"}, {"first_name"=>"Eraldo R.", "last_name"=>"Lima", "scopus_author_id"=>"12788381900"}, {"first_name"=>"Angelo", "last_name"=>"Pallini", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603427822"}, {"first_name"=>"Maurice W.", "last_name"=>"Sabelis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006283914"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"18523578", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002276", "sgr"=>"48449086893", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-48449086893", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"352094539"}, "id"=>"9bd514a7-b43b-39b7-a19d-9c4bb94dad92", "abstract"=>"Many true parasites and parasitoids modify the behaviour of their host, and these changes are thought to be to the benefit of the parasites. However, field tests of this hypothesis are scarce, and it is often unclear whether the host or the parasite profits from the behavioural changes, or even if parasitism is a cause or consequence of the behaviour. We show that braconid parasitoids (Glyptapanteles sp.) induce their caterpillar host (Thyrinteina leucocerae) to behave as a bodyguard of the parasitoid pupae. After parasitoid larvae exit from the host to pupate, the host stops feeding, remains close to the pupae, knocks off predators with violent head-swings, and dies before reaching adulthood. Unparasitized caterpillars do not show these behaviours. In the field, the presence of bodyguard hosts resulted in a two-fold reduction in mortality of parasitoid pupae. Hence, the behaviour appears to be parasitoid-induced and confers benefits exclusively to the parasitoid.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/parasitoid-increases-survival-pupae-inducing-hosts-fight-predators", "reader_count"=>181, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>40, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>40, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>147, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>147}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "China"=>2, "Brazil"=>16, "France"=>2, "Bulgaria"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929155"], "description"=>"<p>Full-grown larvae of the parasitoid egress from the caterpillar and spin cocoons close by their host. The host remains alive, stops feeding and moving, spins silk over the pupae, and responds to disturbance with violent head-swings (supporting information). The caterpillar dies soon after the adult parasitoids emerge from the pupae. Photograph by Prof. José Lino-Neto.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caterpillar", "geometrid", "moth", "pupae", "braconid", "parasitoid", "wasp"], "article_id"=>599584, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Amir H. Grosman", "Arne Janssen", "Elaine F. de Brito", "Eduardo G. Cordeiro", "Felipe Colares", "Juliana Oliveira Fonseca", "Eraldo R. Lima", "Angelo Pallini", "Maurice W. Sabelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_caterpillar_of_the_geometrid_moth_Thyrinteina_leucocerae_with_pupae_of_the_Braconid_parasitoid_wasp_Glyptapanteles_sp_/599584", "title"=>"A caterpillar of the geometrid moth <i>Thyrinteina leucocerae</i> with pupae of the Braconid parasitoid wasp <i>Glyptapanteles</i> sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-04 02:39:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929439"], "description"=>"<p>Twigs with known numbers of parasitoid pupae were attached to a leaf of a guava tree (each batch to a different tree) mimicking the natural situation. The guarding caterpillar was removed at random from 43% of the batches of parasitoid pupae. A. Total mortality, expressed as mean proportion of pupae per batch eaten by predators (white bars: mean−s.e.m.) or hyperparasitized (black bars: mean+s.e.m.). The mean proportion of pupae lost per batch (presumably eaten by predators) was significantly lower in the presence of the host (+ host) than when the caterpillar was absent (- host) (total: ***: GLM with quasi-binomial errors, F<sub>1,116</sub> = 8.25, P<0.005, predation: F<sub>1,116</sub> = 8.85, P<0.005). Levels of hyperparasitism per batch were not significantly different in the presence or absence of the host (F<sub>1,116</sub> = 0.09, P = 0.76). B. Of the batches of pupae with host (+ host in A), total mortality and predation with a live host was lower than when the host was missing at the end of the period of field exposure (total: **: F<sub>1,65</sub> = 23.9, P<0.0001, predation: F<sub>1,65</sub> = 32.7, P<0.0001), but hyperparasitism did not differ significantly between treatments (F<sub>1,65</sub> = 2.78, P = 0.10). Numbers of replicates are given in brackets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["removing", "guarding", "parasitoid"], "article_id"=>599875, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Amir H. Grosman", "Arne Janssen", "Elaine F. de Brito", "Eduardo G. Cordeiro", "Felipe Colares", "Juliana Oliveira Fonseca", "Eraldo R. Lima", "Angelo Pallini", "Maurice W. Sabelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_removing_the_guarding_host_on_field_mortality_of_parasitoid_pupae_/599875", "title"=>"Effect of removing the guarding host on field mortality of parasitoid pupae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-04 02:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459799", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459864"], "description"=>"<div><p>Many true parasites and parasitoids modify the behaviour of their host, and these changes are thought to be to the benefit of the parasites. However, field tests of this hypothesis are scarce, and it is often unclear whether the host or the parasite profits from the behavioural changes, or even if parasitism is a cause or consequence of the behaviour. We show that braconid parasitoids (<em>Glyptapanteles sp.</em>) induce their caterpillar host (<em>Thyrinteina leucocerae</em>) to behave as a bodyguard of the parasitoid pupae. After parasitoid larvae exit from the host to pupate, the host stops feeding, remains close to the pupae, knocks off predators with violent head-swings, and dies before reaching adulthood. Unparasitized caterpillars do not show these behaviours. In the field, the presence of bodyguard hosts resulted in a two-fold reduction in mortality of parasitoid pupae. Hence, the behaviour appears to be parasitoid-induced and confers benefits exclusively to the parasitoid.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasitoid", "increases", "pupae", "inducing", "hosts", "predators"], "article_id"=>150595, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Amir H. Grosman", "Arne Janssen", "Elaine F. de Brito", "Eduardo G. Cordeiro", "Felipe Colares", "Juliana Oliveira Fonseca", "Eraldo R. Lima", "Angelo Pallini", "Maurice W. Sabelis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>69, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Parasitoid_Increases_Survival_of_Its_Pupae_by_Inducing_Hosts_to_Fight_Predators/150595", "title"=>"Parasitoid Increases Survival of Its Pupae by Inducing Hosts to Fight Predators", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-06-04 00:09:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929262"], "description"=>"<p>The distance covered by parasitized and unparasitized caterpillars was measured daily. Parasitoid pupae were either removed from parasitized caterpillars (No pupae) or not (With pupae). Unparasitized caterpillars were supplied with pupae (With pupae) or not (No pupae). Before parasitoid egression (black bars: mean+s.e.m.), the difference in displacement of parasitized and unparasitized caterpillars was not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, KW = 7.12, d.f. = 3, P = 0.068). After egression (white bars: mean+s.e.m.), parasitized caterpillars moved significantly less far than unparasitized caterpillars (KW = 24.0, d.f. = 3, P<0.001). The difference in displacement of parasitized caterpillars before and after egression was significant (**: Wilcoxon Matched Pairs test, P<0.01). Numbers of replicates are given in brackets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasitism", "locomotion"], "article_id"=>599701, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Amir H. Grosman", "Arne Janssen", "Elaine F. de Brito", "Eduardo G. Cordeiro", "Felipe Colares", "Juliana Oliveira Fonseca", "Eraldo R. Lima", "Angelo Pallini", "Maurice W. Sabelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_parasitism_on_host_locomotion_on_the_plant_/599701", "title"=>"Effect of parasitism on host locomotion on the plant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-04 02:41:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929334"], "description"=>"<p>A predator was introduced on a twig, 2–4 cm away from a parasitized or unparasitized caterpillar, without disturbing the caterpillar. A. Upon being encountered by a predator, parasitized caterpillars (black bars: mean+s.e.m.) swung their heads more frequently than unparasitized (white bars: mean+s.e.m.) caterpillars (***: GLM with quasi-Poisson errors, F<sub>1,37</sub> = 57.6, P<0.001). B. The proportion of predators that gave up or were knocked off the twig was higher for parasitized compared with unparasitized hosts (**: Fisher's Exact Test, P = 0.008). Numbers of replicates are given in brackets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasitism", "host-predator", "interactions"], "article_id"=>599771, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Amir H. Grosman", "Arne Janssen", "Elaine F. de Brito", "Eduardo G. Cordeiro", "Felipe Colares", "Juliana Oliveira Fonseca", "Eraldo R. Lima", "Angelo Pallini", "Maurice W. Sabelis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002276.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_parasitism_on_host_predator_interactions_in_the_laboratory_/599771", "title"=>"Effect of parasitism on host-predator interactions in the laboratory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-04 02:42:51"}

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Relative Metric

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