Preference Transitivity and Symbolic Representation in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)
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{"title"=>"Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elsa", "last_name"=>"Addessi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507286322"}, {"first_name"=>"Alessandra", "last_name"=>"Mancini", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196617022"}, {"first_name"=>"Lara", "last_name"=>"Crescimbene", "scopus_author_id"=>"23979227100"}, {"first_name"=>"Camillo", "last_name"=>"Padoa-Schioppa", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506974368"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisabetta", "last_name"=>"Visalberghi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004204805"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"48749129846", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002414", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"352109512", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"18545670", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-48749129846"}, "id"=>"77638120-7025-367b-803d-1a24ab77288c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference). In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic representation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/preference-transitivity-symbolic-representation-capuchin-monkeys-cebus-apella-2", "reader_count"=>76, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Philosophy"=>2, "Psychology"=>19, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>19}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>7, "Italy"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929897"], "description"=>"<p>The three panels show the choice patterns recorded for food pairs A:B, B:C and A:C, respectively. In the first panel, the x axis represents the offer type, and different offer types are ordered by the ratio of <i>q<sub>B</sub></i> / <i>q<sub>A</sub></i>, where <i>q<sub>A</sub></i> and <i>q<sub>B</sub></i> are the quantities of foods A and B offered to the subject. The y-axis represents the percentage of trials in which the subject chose item B. Analogously, in the second and third panel, the y-axis represents the percentage of trials the subject chooses food C. In this session, the subject is offered cheerios as food A, dried pineapple as food B, and rice krispies as food C. The sigmoid fits provide the relative values V(A) = 0.9 V(B), V(B) = 2.4 V(C), and V(A) = 2.2 V(C); therefore, subject's choices satisfy value transitivity since 0.9 * 2.4 ∼ 2.2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/animal cognition", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/psychology", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>600337, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Food_condition_/600337", "title"=>"Food condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:05:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459178", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459256", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459334", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459399", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459455", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459502", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459558", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459618", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459763", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/459825"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity - a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A≥B, B≥C and A≥C (where ≥ indicates preference). In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic representation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transitivity", "capuchin", "monkeys"], "article_id"=>150470, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Preference_Transitivity_and_Symbolic_Representation_in_Capuchin_Monkeys_Cebus_apella_/150470", "title"=>"Preference Transitivity and Symbolic Representation in Capuchin Monkeys (<em>Cebus apella</em>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:07:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/930328"], "description"=>"<p>Type of trials presented in the Food condition and in the Token condition for each subject and for each item pair.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trials", "presented", "token"], "article_id"=>600774, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Type_of_trials_presented_in_the_Food_condition_and_in_the_Token_condition_for_each_subject_and_for_each_item_pair_/600774", "title"=>"Type of trials presented in the Food condition and in the Token condition for each subject and for each item pair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:12:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/930025"], "description"=>"<p>The x-axis represents the product n<sub>A:B</sub>* n<sub>B:C</sub>, the y-axis represents n<sub>A:C</sub>, and each data point represents one of the 24 sessions consistent with value transitivity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/animal cognition", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/psychology", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>600471, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Food_condition_/600471", "title"=>"Food condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:07:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/930298"], "description"=>"<p>A items are preferred to B items, and B items are preferred to C items.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["token", "triads"], "article_id"=>600744, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Food_and_token_triads_for_each_subject_/600744", "title"=>"Food and token triads for each subject.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:12:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929768"], "description"=>"<p>The apparatus is positioned in front of the indoor compartment and the experimenter is nearby the apparatus, facing the subject. The subject can reach each tray through the corresponding opening in the wire mesh (8.5 cm×3.8 cm each). This photo depicts Robot, a male capuchin, who has just selected three black plastic tokens (each corresponding to one piece of dried apricot, food C) preferring them to one brass hook (corresponding to one cheerios, food A). Robot is exchanging the first plastic token for one piece of dried apricot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/animal cognition", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/psychology", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>600206, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_apparatus_/600206", "title"=>"Experimental apparatus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:03:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/930209"], "description"=>"<p>The three panels show the choice patterns recorded for token pairs A:B, B:C and A:C. Here the subject is offered green chips as tokens A (corresponding to one cheerios each), black plastic tubes as tokens B (corresponding to one piece of dried apricot each), and brass hooks as tokens C (corresponding to one sunflower seed each). The sigmoid fits provide the relative values V(A) = 2.8 V(B) and V(B) = 4.3 V(C); however, when facing the choice between one token A and up to six tokens C, this subject always chose the single token A, thus we could not evaluate the relative value of A vs. C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/animal cognition", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/psychology", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>600654, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Elsa Addessi", "Alessandra Mancini", "Lara Crescimbene", "Camillo Padoa-Schioppa", "Elisabetta Visalberghi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002414.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Token_condition_/600654", "title"=>"Token condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-11 00:10:54"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2008-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2008-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[355, 717, 919, 1114, 1250, 1341, 1418, 1485, 1548, 1629, 1727, 1782, 1846, 1921, 1991, 2068, 2161, 2237, 2318, 2392, 2456, 2519, 2575, 2625, 2681, 2734, 2790, 2859, 2920, 2976, 3024, 3047, 3093, 3156, 3193, 3234, 3256, 3306, 3362, 3405, 3446, 3497, 3553, 3664, 3730, 3797, 3856, 3919, 3967, 4018, 4099, 4185, 4258, 4352, 4405, 4456, 4521, 4589, 4634, 4666, 4705, 4759, 4828, 4898, 4945, 5000, 5076, 5140, 5190, 5263, 5313, 5368, 5422, 5527]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[322, 656, 839, 991, 1110, 1218, 1312, 1396, 1482, 1569, 1637, 1714, 1789, 1850, 1914, 1974, 2030, 2092, 2156, 2216, 2277, 2351, 2412, 2468, 2537, 2611, 2665, 2726, 2779, 2831, 2894, 2955, 3006, 3056, 3120, 3174, 3221, 3271, 3328, 3371, 3426, 3474, 3536, 3606, 3653, 3705, 3771, 3826, 3880, 3948, 4018, 4093, 4150, 4198, 4278, 4344, 4419, 4467, 4529, 4592, 4672, 4743, 4795, 4859, 4916, 4977, 5034, 5122, 5176, 5242, 5314, 5374, 5431]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[351, 717, 876, 1042, 1182, 1294, 1374, 1471, 1534, 1604, 1671, 1745, 1809, 1872, 1918, 1983, 2052, 2105, 2164, 2239, 2324, 2422, 2506, 2569, 2648, 2703, 2756, 2795, 2836, 2895, 2935, 2965, 3020, 3090, 3159, 3206, 3269, 3324, 3373, 3404, 3435, 3471, 3532, 3567, 3628, 3671, 3736, 3793, 3858, 3897, 3956, 4012, 4078, 4128, 4202, 4271, 4369, 4442, 4511, 4590, 4649, 4698, 4779, 4827, 4877, 4943, 5020, 5100, 5164, 5257, 5312, 5368, 5422, 5492]}]}
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