Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Human West Nile Infection: Observation of the Dilution Effect
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{"title"=>"Increased avian diversity is associated with lower incidence of human West Nile infection: Observation of the dilution effect", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John P.", "last_name"=>"Swaddle", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004209946"}, {"first_name"=>"Stavros E.", "last_name"=>"Calos", "scopus_author_id"=>"24576548600"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"49649116646", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-49649116646", "pmid"=>"18575599", "pui"=>"352172046", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002488"}, "id"=>"02566f90-40c9-3670-9375-ab3abf693fba", "abstract"=>"Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity--the 'dilution effect'. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the 'dilution effect' are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely been examined for other infectious diseases on a broad geographic scale. Here, we explored whether the dilution effect can be observed in the relationship between the incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV) infection and bird (host) diversity in the eastern US. We constructed a novel geospatial contrasts analysis that compares the small differences in avian diversity of neighboring US counties (where one county reported human cases of WNV and the other reported no cases) with associated between-county differences in human disease. We also controlled for confounding factors of climate, regional variation in mosquito vector type, urbanization, and human socioeconomic factors that are all likely to affect human disease incidence. We found there is lower incidence of human WNV in eastern US counties that have greater avian (viral host) diversity. This pattern exists when examining diversity-disease relationships both before WNV reached the US (in 1998) and once the epidemic was underway (in 2002). The robust disease-diversity relationships confirm that the dilution effect can be observed in another emerging infectious disease and illustrate an important ecosystem service provided by biodiversity, further supporting the growing view that protecting biodiversity should be considered in public health and safety plans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/increased-avian-diversity-associated-lower-incidence-human-west-nile-infection-observation-dilution-2", "reader_count"=>195, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>41, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>44, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>41, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>44, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>135, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>30, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>30}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>135}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>2, "Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>9, "Sudan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "French Polynesia"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>2, "South Africa"=>2, "Slovakia"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928379"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of effect size (unsigned partial correlation coefficients) for the relationships between relative and absolute measures of avian abundance, assessed in 1998 and 2002, with incidence of human WNV in 2002.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "measures", "avian", "1998", "incidence", "wnv"], "article_id"=>598829, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Swaddle", "Stavros E. Calos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_effect_size_unsigned_partial_correlation_coefficients_for_the_relationships_between_relative_and_absolute_measures_of_avian_abundance_assessed_in_1998_and_2002_with_incidence_of_human_WNV_in_2002_/598829", "title"=>"Estimates of effect size (unsigned partial correlation coefficients) for the relationships between relative and absolute measures of avian abundance, assessed in 1998 and 2002, with incidence of human WNV in 2002.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-06-25 02:27:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/457526", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/457534"], "description"=>"<div><p>Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely been examined for other infectious diseases on a broad geographic scale. Here, we explored whether the dilution effect can be observed in the relationship between the incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV) infection and bird (host) diversity in the eastern US. We constructed a novel geospatial contrasts analysis that compares the small differences in avian diversity of neighboring US counties (where one county reported human cases of WNV and the other reported no cases) with associated between-county differences in human disease. We also controlled for confounding factors of climate, regional variation in mosquito vector type, urbanization, and human socioeconomic factors that are all likely to affect human disease incidence. We found there is lower incidence of human WNV in eastern US counties that have greater avian (viral host) diversity. This pattern exists when examining diversity-disease relationships both before WNV reached the US (in 1998) and once the epidemic was underway (in 2002). The robust disease-diversity relationships confirm that the dilution effect can be observed in another emerging infectious disease and illustrate an important ecosystem service provided by biodiversity, further supporting the growing view that protecting biodiversity should be considered in public health and safety plans.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["avian", "incidence", "nile", "dilution"], "article_id"=>150131, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Swaddle", "Stavros E. Calos"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Increased_Avian_Diversity_Is_Associated_with_Lower_Incidence_of_Human_West_Nile_Infection_Observation_of_the_Dilution_Effect/150131", "title"=>"Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Human West Nile Infection: Observation of the Dilution Effect", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-06-25 00:02:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928272"], "description"=>"<p>Filled circles represent data from 1998 and open circles represent reports from 2002. The solid line is best-fit linear regression line for 1998 and the dotted line represents the regression line for 2002.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "wnv", "richness", "contrasts", "constructed", "pairs", "shannon-weiner", "evenness"], "article_id"=>598717, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Swaddle", "Stavros E. Calos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_log_human_incidence_of_WNV_per_100_000_people_on_A_species_richness_contrasts_constructed_from_the_difference_between_neighboring_pairs_of_counties_and_B_Shannon_Weiner_evenness_contrasts_/598717", "title"=>"Plots of log human incidence of WNV (per 100,000 people) on (A) species richness contrasts constructed from the difference between neighboring pairs of counties; and (B) Shannon-Weiner evenness contrasts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-25 02:25:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928340"], "description"=>"<p>Component matrix from the principal components analysis of original 2000 US Census Bureau data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrix", "components", "2000", "census"], "article_id"=>598798, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Swaddle", "Stavros E. Calos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Component_matrix_from_the_principal_components_analysis_of_original_2000_US_Census_Bureau_data_/598798", "title"=>"Component matrix from the principal components analysis of original 2000 US Census Bureau data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-06-25 02:26:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928413"], "description"=>"<p>Mechanisms that can give rise to a negative relationship between avian diversity and human WNV incidence, with associated predictions and findings from this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["avian", "wnv", "predictions", "findings"], "article_id"=>598870, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Swaddle", "Stavros E. Calos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mechanisms_that_can_give_rise_to_a_negative_relationship_between_avian_diversity_and_human_WNV_incidence_with_associated_predictions_and_findings_from_this_study_/598870", "title"=>"Mechanisms that can give rise to a negative relationship between avian diversity and human WNV incidence, with associated predictions and findings from this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-06-25 02:27:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928158"], "description"=>"<p>Red shading indicates counties that reported positive tests for human WNV in 2002; blue shading indicates counties that reported no positive cases of human WNV.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["counties", "geospatial", "contrasts"], "article_id"=>598611, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Medicine", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Swaddle", "Stavros E. Calos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Eastern_US_counties_used_in_the_geospatial_contrasts_analyses_/598611", "title"=>"Eastern US counties used in the geospatial contrasts analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-25 02:23:31"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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