Climate Extremes Promote Fatal Co-Infections during Canine Distemper Epidemics in African Lions
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{"title"=>"Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Linda", "last_name"=>"Munson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007063523"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen A.", "last_name"=>"Terio", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603040191"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Kock", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006702581"}, {"first_name"=>"Titus", "last_name"=>"Mlengeya", "scopus_author_id"=>"15840072700"}, {"first_name"=>"Melody E.", "last_name"=>"Roelke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003436462"}, {"first_name"=>"Edward", "last_name"=>"Dubovi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005099381"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Summers", "scopus_author_id"=>"35509254900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anthony R.E.", "last_name"=>"Sinclair", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202756245"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig", "last_name"=>"Packer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103089793"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-49649096842", "sgr"=>"49649096842", "pui"=>"352180138", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"18575601", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002545"}, "id"=>"9b194e7f-9aa0-3dd2-8cb5-cef71db42f1b", "abstract"=>"Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five \"silent'' CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer). As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality events may become increasingly common if climate extremes disrupt historic stable relationships between co- existing pathogens and their susceptible hosts.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/climate-extremes-promote-fatal-coinfections-during-canine-distemper-epidemics-african-lions", "reader_count"=>240, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>51, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>46, "Student > Postgraduate"=>17, "Student > Master"=>44, "Other"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>51, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>46, "Student > Postgraduate"=>17, "Student > Master"=>44, "Other"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Environmental Science"=>31, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>133, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>22, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>133}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>31}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>22}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>10, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "South Africa"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Mexico"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "India"=>2}, "group_count"=>13}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928045"], "description"=>"<p>A) Histopathology of <i>Babesia</i> hyperinfection in an adult lion that died during the epidemic. Small intestinal capillaries are occluded by parasitized red blood cells; B) Marked lymphocyte depletion in the lymph node of the same lion, indicating immunosuppression; C) Electron micrograph of intraerythrocytic piroplasms morphologically compatible with <i>Babesia</i> sp. in the deceased lion; D) Results of denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis for previously characterized carnivore hemoparasites and hemoparasites amplified by PCR from lion samples that demonstrated mixed infections. Lane 1, <i>Babesia canis</i>; lane 2, <i>Cytauxzoon felis</i>; lane 3, <i>B. gibsoni</i>; lane 4, mixture of <i>B. canis</i>, <i>C. felis</i>, and <i>B. gibsoni</i> isolates in lanes 1–3; lane 5, no DNA-negative control; lane 6, lion with <i>Babesia sp.</i> most similar genetically to <i>B. gibsoni</i>, <i>B. felis</i> and a previously uncharacterized <i>Babesia sp.</i>; lane 7, lion with <i>Babesia sp.</i> most similar genetically to <i>B. gibsoni</i> and <i>B. felis</i>; lane 8, lion with hemoparasites most similar genetically to <i>B. gibsoni</i> and <i>Hepatozoon felis</i>; lane 9, lion with a hemoparasite most similar genetically to <i>H. felis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lions", "2001"], "article_id"=>598491, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Linda Munson", "Karen A. Terio", "Richard Kock", "Titus Mlengeya", "Melody E. Roelke", "Edward Dubovi", "Brian Summers", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Craig Packer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002545.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Babesia_infection_in_lions_from_the_2001_epidemic_/598491", "title"=>"<i>Babesia</i> infection in lions from the 2001 epidemic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 10:08:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928180"], "description"=>"<p>Prides with a greater proportion of individuals showing high hemoparasitemia also suffered higher mortality rates (P<0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hemoparasitemia", "rates", "outbreaks", "crater", "serengeti"], "article_id"=>598621, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Linda Munson", "Karen A. Terio", "Richard Kock", "Titus Mlengeya", "Melody E. Roelke", "Edward Dubovi", "Brian Summers", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Craig Packer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002545.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pride_level_effects_of_hemoparasitemia_on_mortality_rates_during_the_fatal_outbreaks_in_the_Crater_red_circle_and_Serengeti_blue_triangles_/598621", "title"=>"Pride-level effects of hemoparasitemia on mortality rates during the fatal outbreaks in the Crater (red circle) and Serengeti (blue triangles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 10:08:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/927986"], "description"=>"<p>The heavy lines show the number of adults (≥4 yrs of age), and the narrow lines show the total populations. Blue bars indicate likely timing of “silent” outbreaks that were only detected retrospectively by serology; pink bars show fatal outbreaks. Note that serological data are unavailable for the Crater from 1991–2000. (C, D) Number of buffalo carcasses in the diet of the respective lion populations each year and bone marrow fat scores of Serengeti buffalo. Data are restricted to years with comparable levels of search effort. Red circles in the Serengeti (C) show the bone marrow fat scores (% of bone marrow that was fat) of buffalo carcasses. Note: Full-time lion staff was not stationed in the Crater during 1984–98.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cdv", "outbreaks", "serengeti", "ngorongoro"], "article_id"=>598419, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Linda Munson", "Karen A. Terio", "Richard Kock", "Titus Mlengeya", "Melody E. Roelke", "Edward Dubovi", "Brian Summers", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Craig Packer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002545.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timing_and_impact_of_CDV_outbreaks_in_A_Serengeti_and_B_Ngorongoro_Crater_/598419", "title"=>"Timing and impact of CDV outbreaks in (A) Serengeti and (B) Ngorongoro Crater.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 10:07:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928125"], "description"=>"<p>Fatal outbreaks are highlighted in light red. Data are separated according to changes in sample preparation affecting levels of PCR product: (A) red blood cell pellets were extracted from all samples collected in 1984–1996, while (B) whole blood was collected for all subsequent samples. The relative quantity of hemoparasite DNA was calculated as average threshold PCR cycle divided by hemoglobin concentration and expressed as the fold difference greater than the sample with the smallest quantity of hemoparasite DNA. Levels of <i>Babesia</i> infection were significantly higher during the fatal outbreaks, in the Crater, and in assays performed on whole blood (all three factors significant at P<0.0001 in a multivariate analysis, <i>n</i> = 344).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lions", "sampled", "serengeti", "ngorongoro", "crater", "Real-time"], "article_id"=>598554, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Linda Munson", "Karen A. Terio", "Richard Kock", "Titus Mlengeya", "Melody E. Roelke", "Edward Dubovi", "Brian Summers", "Anthony R. E. Sinclair", "Craig Packer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002545.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_quantity_of_Babesia_in_lions_sampled_each_year_in_the_Serengeti_blue_triangles_and_Ngorongoro_Crater_red_circles_as_determined_by_real_time_PCR_/598554", "title"=>"Relative quantity of <i>Babesia</i> in lions sampled each year in the Serengeti (blue triangles) and Ngorongoro Crater (red circles) as determined by real-time PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 10:08:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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