A Visual Metaphor Describing Neural Dynamics in Schizophrenia
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{"title"=>"A visual metaphor describing neural dynamics in Schizophrenia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"N. J M", "last_name"=>"van Beveren", "scopus_author_id"=>"8444115100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lieuwe", "last_name"=>"de Haan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005592387"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-50249108308", "pui"=>"352219192", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002577", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"50249108308", "pmid"=>"18648540"}, "id"=>"61c4f9d6-22fd-3576-bbbc-73412fd7de87", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: In many scientific disciplines the use of a metaphor as an heuristic aid is not uncommon. A well known example in somatic medicine is the 'defense army metaphor' used to characterize the immune system. In fact, probably a large part of the everyday work of doctors consists of 'translating' scientific and clinical information (i.e. causes of disease, percentage of success versus risk of side-effects) into information tailored to the needs and capacities of the individual patient. The ability to do so in an effective way is at least partly what makes a clinician a good communicator. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder which affects approximately 1% of the population. Over the last two decades a large amount of molecular-biological, imaging and genetic data have been accumulated regarding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. However, it remains difficult to understand how the characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are related to disturbances on the molecular-biological level. In general, psychiatry seems to lack a conceptual framework with sufficient explanatory power to link the mental- and molecular-biological domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present an essay-like study in which we propose to use visualized concepts stemming from the theory on dynamical complex systems as a 'visual metaphor' to bridge the mental- and molecular-biological domains in schizophrenia. We first describe a computer model of neural information processing; we show how the information processing in this model can be visualized, using concepts from the theory on complex systems. We then describe two computer models which have been used to investigate the primary theory on schizophrenia, the neurodevelopmental model, and show how disturbed information processing in these two computer models can be presented in terms of the visual metaphor previously described. Finally, we describe the effects of dopamine neuromodulation, of which disturbances have been frequently described in schizophrenia, in terms of the same visualized metaphor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The conceptual framework and metaphor described offers a heuristic tool to understand the relationship between the mental- and molecular-biological domains in an intuitive way. The concepts we present may serve to facilitate communication between researchers, clinicians and patients.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/visual-metaphor-describing-neural-dynamics-schizophrenia", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Philosophy"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>19, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>19}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/926508"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>, top: different states of a network represented by points in a plane: the state space. A random situation is shown. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>, center: an attractor representing ‘A’ symbolised as a dent in state space. Changes in the state of the network can be regarded as a trajectory through state space. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>, bottom: attractors with variably sized basins (representing the influence of the attractor) and variable depths (representing the preference of the system to stay in the attractor).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectory", "guided", "attractors", "clarity", "repulsors"], "article_id"=>596960, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Nico J. M. van Beveren", "Lieuwe de Haan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamical_behavior_of_a_network_as_a_trajectory_in_state_space_guided_by_attractors_for_clarity_repulsors_are_not_shown_/596960", "title"=>"Dynamical behavior of a network as a trajectory in state space guided by attractors (for clarity repulsors are not shown).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 09:59:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/926564"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>, top: ‘normally’ sized attractors (cf <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g002\" target=\"_blank\">figure 2</a>, bottom). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>, bottom: aberrant neurodevelopmental processes (i.e. excessive pruning) give rise to a spurious attractor: situations and concepts become malclassified (interpreted after 17). This may lead to the subjective experience of delusions or hallucinations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disturbances"], "article_id"=>597025, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Nico J. M. van Beveren", "Lieuwe de Haan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathology_shown_as_disturbances_in_state_space_see_text_/597025", "title"=>"Pathology shown as disturbances in state space (see text).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 09:59:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/926405"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, top, (left): a network with 100 units with connections of random strength and with no specific pattern learned (for clarity only neighbouring connections are shown). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, top (middle and right): learning pattern ‘A’. Top (middle): presenting ‘A’; top (right): connections between units related to ‘A’ are strengthened. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, bottom, (left): presenting part of ‘A’. Bottom (right): the network has succeeded in retrieving ‘A’</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attractor"], "article_id"=>596859, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Nico J. M. van Beveren", "Lieuwe de Haan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Learning_an_attractor_network_to_recognize_patterns_/596859", "title"=>"Learning an attractor network to recognize patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 09:59:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/926704"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>, top: increasing levels of dopamine augment the signal-to-noise ratio: the basin of the attractor associated with the most salient signal increases while the basins of attraction of the other attractors decrease. Note also the increase respectively decrease of the depth of the attractors reflecting a increased respectively decreased tendency of the system to stay in the attractor. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>, bottom: decreasing levels of dopamine reduce the signal-to-noise ratio: the basins of attraction and the depth of the attractors become more similar resulting in an enhanced tendency of the system to make transitions from one attractor to another.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dopamine"], "article_id"=>597163, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Nico J. M. van Beveren", "Lieuwe de Haan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modulatory_effects_of_dopamine_shown_as_changes_in_state_space_interpreted_after_30_see_also_text_/597163", "title"=>"Modulatory effects of dopamine shown as changes in state space (interpreted after 30)(see also text).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 10:00:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/926622"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>, top: meaningful acoustical signals have created an ‘attractor landscape’. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>, center: recognizing a (degraded) signal, ic ‘Jane’. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577#pone-0002577-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>, bottom: after recognizing ‘Jane’ the basins of attraction of concepts associated with ‘Jane’ (acoustical signals, likely to follow ‘Jane’) temporarily increase, facilitating the capacity to recognize subsequent input (i.e. the most likely words to follow Jane).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspects"], "article_id"=>597081, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Nico J. M. van Beveren", "Lieuwe de Haan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002577.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamical_aspects_of_the_8216_attractor_landscape_8217_see_also_text_/597081", "title"=>"Dynamical aspects of the ‘attractor landscape’ (see also text).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 10:00:16"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
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Relative Metric

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