Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators?
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{"title"=>"Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael C.", "last_name"=>"Otterstatter", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508115246"}, {"first_name"=>"James D.", "last_name"=>"Thomson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402682170"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"18648661", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002771", "sgr"=>"50649091092", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-50649091092", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"352252805"}, "id"=>"461b1c13-0484-37a2-ab64-5768d4197e9c", "abstract"=>"The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the 'ecosystem services' they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, 'Colony Collapse Disorder'); yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s) of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen 'spillover' from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of C. bombi infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35-100% of wild Bombus, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of C. bombi near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed C. bombi to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild Bombus in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even eliminate pathogen spillover.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pathogen-spillover-commercially-reared-bumble-bees-threaten-wild-pollinators", "reader_count"=>239, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>30, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>37, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>30, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>37, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>177, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>29, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>29}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>177}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>14, "United Kingdom"=>2, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Austria"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/925937"], "description"=>"<p>Average (±SE) percentage of bumble bees (sexes and castes pooled) infected by <i>Crithidia bombi</i> among the most common <i>Bombus</i> species at our study sites in southern Ontario during June–August, 2005.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bumble", "bees", "castes", "infected", "sites", "ontario"], "article_id"=>596385, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_SE_percentage_of_bumble_bees_sexes_and_castes_pooled_infected_by_Crithidia_bombi_among_the_most_common_Bombus_species_at_our_study_sites_in_southern_Ontario_during_June_August_2005_/596385", "title"=>"Average (±SE) percentage of bumble bees (sexes and castes pooled) infected by <i>Crithidia bombi</i> among the most common <i>Bombus</i> species at our study sites in southern Ontario during June–August, 2005.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/925992"], "description"=>"a<p>‘Study site’ (Exeter or Leamington) and ‘Time of year’ (early [June] or late [July, August]) treated as nominal variables.</p>b<p>‘Distance’ treated as a continuous variable.</p>*<p>Non-significant interactions are not shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "prevalence", "infections", "bumble", "bees", "times", "greenhouse"], "article_id"=>596438, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistics_comparing_the_prevalence_of_C_bombi_infections_in_bumble_bees_all_species_pooled_across_study_sites_times_of_year_and_distance_from_industrial_greenhouse_operations_/596438", "title"=>"Statistics comparing the prevalence of <i>C. bombi</i> infections in bumble bees (all species pooled) across study sites, times of year, and distance from industrial greenhouse operations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/456559", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/456568", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/456577", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/456590", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/456602"], "description"=>"<div><p>The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the ‘ecosystem services’ they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, ‘Colony Collapse Disorder’); yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s) of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (<em>Bombus</em> spp.) have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen ‘spillover’ from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of <em>Crithidia bombi</em>, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial <em>Bombus</em>. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of <em>C. bombi</em> infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35–100% of wild <em>Bombus</em>, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of <em>C. bombi</em> near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed <em>C. bombi</em> to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild <em>Bombus</em> in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even eliminate pathogen spillover.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogen", "spillover", "commercially", "reared", "bumble", "bees"], "article_id"=>149929, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Does_Pathogen_Spillover_from_Commercially_Reared_Bumble_Bees_Threaten_Wild_Pollinators_/149929", "title"=>"Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 02:45:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/925759"], "description"=>"<p>Relative abundance (% total catch of bumble bees, all species) of <i>Bombus impatiens</i> workers collected near a greenhouse in southern Ontario during June 2005. Solid line indicates the exponential fit, y = 53.77e<sup>−0.01x</sup>. Most, if not all, of these <i>B. impatiens</i> workers were from commercial colonies in the greenhouse (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["commercially", "reared", "bumble", "bees", "foraging"], "article_id"=>596206, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_commercially_reared_bumble_bees_foraging_near_an_industrial_greenhouse_/596206", "title"=>"Prevalence of commercially reared bumble bees foraging near an industrial greenhouse.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:43:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/925833"], "description"=>"<p>Filled circles indicate the observed mean±SE prevalences of <i>C. bombi</i> among bumble bee workers (across species and sampling dates) collected at varying distances to industrial greenhouses at (A) Exeter and (B) Leamington during summer 2005. Sample sizes are shown in parentheses. Shaded areas indicate the predicted <i>C. bombi</i> prevalences during our study period, based on the diffusion model [equations (1)–(3)] and the parameter values shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771#pone-0002771-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. In panel A, for example, the lower curve of the shaded area represents the predicted prevalence of infection during our first collecting effort at Exeter, as a function of distance from the greenhouse, whereas the upper curve represents the predicted prevalence during our last collecting effort, nine weeks later. We estimated that, in our numerical simulations, <i>t</i> = 4–13 wks (Exeter) and <i>t</i> = 5–14 wks (Leamington) most closely matched with our nine week sampling period during June–August (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogenic", "bumble", "populations", "greenhouses"], "article_id"=>596286, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spillover_of_pathogenic_Crithidia_bombi_into_wild_bumble_bee_populations_near_greenhouses_in_southern_Ontario_/596286", "title"=>"Spillover of pathogenic <i>Crithidia bombi</i> into wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses in southern Ontario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:44:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/926021"], "description"=>"a<p>rarely collected <i>Bombus</i> species (n<15 per site) are not shown; also, note that no <i>B. rufocinctus</i> were collected at Leamington.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bumble", "sites", "ontario", "2005", "exeter", "leamington"], "article_id"=>596470, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_similarity_in_plant_species_use_among_bumble_bee_species_at_our_study_sites_in_southern_Ontario_during_June_8211_August_2005_values_for_Exeter_shown_below_the_diagonal_those_for_Leamington_shown_above_the_diagonal_/596470", "title"=>"Percent similarity in plant species use among bumble bee species at our study sites in southern Ontario during June–August, 2005 (values for Exeter shown below the diagonal, those for Leamington shown above the diagonal).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:47:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/925954"], "description"=>"a<p>Initial host density based on data in Forup and Memmott <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771#pone.0002771-Forup1\" target=\"_blank\">[83]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "spillover"], "article_id"=>596412, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_estimates_for_our_model_of_Crithidia_bombi_spillover_near_greenhouses_/596412", "title"=>"Parameter estimates for our model of <i>Crithidia bombi</i> spillover near greenhouses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:46:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/925670"], "description"=>"<p>Prevalence curves were generated through numerical simulation of our diffusion model [equations (1)–(3)] using the parameter estimates given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771#pone-0002771-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. This figure illustrates a slow build-up of pathogenic <i>C. bombi</i> in the wild population (<i>t</i> = 2 wks to <i>t</i> = 13 wks; traces for weeks 3–12 omitted for clarity) followed by a large, rapidly forming, wave front of infection (<i>t</i> = 13 wks to <i>t</i> = 18 wks) that travels away from the greenhouse at approximately 2 km per week.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogen", "spillover", "bumble", "populations"], "article_id"=>596118, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael C. Otterstatter", "James D. Thomson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002771.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_long_term_dynamics_of_pathogen_spillover_into_wild_bumble_bee_populations_near_greenhouses_/596118", "title"=>"Predicted long-term dynamics of pathogen spillover into wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-07-23 01:41:58"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"29", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2008-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2008-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[324, 674, 863, 1015, 1146, 1259, 1360, 1452, 1540, 1621, 1704, 1776, 1843, 1905, 1968, 2029, 2097, 2162, 2233, 2289, 2352, 2412, 2476, 2538, 2601, 2655, 2714, 2777, 2841, 2894, 2946, 2998, 3047, 3103, 3151, 3201, 3258, 3317, 3369, 3424, 3471, 3521, 3583, 3625, 3687, 3743, 3788, 3838, 3896, 3953, 4015, 4075, 4148, 4201, 4275, 4347, 4420, 4486, 4535, 4592, 4660, 4731, 4792, 4845, 4901, 4971, 5027, 5089, 5148, 5200, 5261, 5318, 5374]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[355, 717, 919, 1114, 1250, 1341, 1418, 1485, 1548, 1629, 1727, 1782, 1846, 1921, 1991, 2068, 2161, 2237, 2318, 2392, 2456, 2519, 2575, 2625, 2681, 2734, 2790, 2859, 2920, 2976, 3024, 3047, 3093, 3156, 3193, 3234, 3256, 3306, 3362, 3405, 3446, 3497, 3553, 3664, 3730, 3797, 3856, 3919, 3967, 4018, 4099, 4185, 4258, 4352, 4405, 4456, 4521, 4589, 4634, 4666, 4705, 4759, 4828, 4898, 4945, 5000, 5076, 5140, 5190, 5263, 5313, 5368, 5422, 5527]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[373, 821, 1071, 1265, 1399, 1517, 1662, 1748, 1885, 1971, 2045, 2117, 2184, 2244, 2295, 2349, 2420, 2488, 2538, 2606, 2677, 2737, 2807, 2861, 2942, 3028, 3106, 3211, 3270, 3333, 3413, 3472, 3575, 3650, 3734, 3777, 3834, 3917, 4009, 4063, 4151, 4251, 4356, 4416, 4476, 4547, 4605, 4665, 4743, 4828, 4905, 4996, 5123, 5264, 5340, 5423, 5484, 5561, 5646, 5689, 5844, 5903, 5994, 6050, 6112, 6160, 6233, 6294, 6349, 6396, 6446, 6499, 6573, 6639]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[351, 717, 876, 1042, 1182, 1294, 1374, 1471, 1534, 1604, 1671, 1745, 1809, 1872, 1918, 1983, 2052, 2105, 2164, 2239, 2324, 2422, 2506, 2569, 2648, 2703, 2756, 2795, 2836, 2895, 2935, 2965, 3020, 3090, 3159, 3206, 3269, 3324, 3373, 3404, 3435, 3471, 3532, 3567, 3628, 3671, 3736, 3793, 3858, 3897, 3956, 4012, 4078, 4128, 4202, 4271, 4369, 4442, 4511, 4590, 4649, 4698, 4779, 4827, 4877, 4943, 5020, 5100, 5164, 5257, 5312, 5368, 5422, 5492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[373, 829, 1071, 1251, 1374, 1523, 1653, 1748, 1885, 2004, 2092, 2182, 2229, 2298, 2352, 2396, 2439, 2489, 2554, 2640, 2862, 2942, 3008, 3073, 3115, 3209, 3338, 3404, 3444, 3486, 3541, 3597, 3645, 3711, 3772, 3866, 3957, 4040, 4137, 4205, 4248, 4318, 4420, 4504, 4587, 4648, 4715, 4781, 4851, 4938, 5016, 5072, 5124, 5281, 5340, 5423, 5484, 5561, 5646, 5689, 5790, 5883, 5951, 5974, 6016, 6058, 6094, 6136, 6185, 6224, 6250, 6307, 6389, 6490]}]}
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