Source of Sustained Voltage Difference between the Xylem of a Potted Ficus benjamina Tree and Its Soil
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{"title"=>"Source of sustained voltage difference between the xylem of a potted ficus benjamina tree and its soil", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Love", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202207769"}, {"first_name"=>"Shuguang", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"35239328600"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Mershin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801327469"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"352351996", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0002963", "sgr"=>"51849117315", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-51849117315", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "pmid"=>"18698415"}, "id"=>"15448fba-fcdd-339e-94a4-2074a71571e5", "abstract"=>"It has long been known that there is a sustained electrical potential (voltage) difference between the xylem of many plants and their surrounding soil, but the mechanism behind this voltage has remained controversial. After eliminating any extraneous capacitive or inductive couplings and ground-mediated electric current flows, we have measured sustained differences of 50?200 mV between the xylem region of a Faraday-caged, intact, potted Ficus benjamina tree and its soil, as well as between its cut branches and soils and ionic solutions standardized to various pH values. Using identical platinum electrodes, no correlation between the voltage and time of day, illumination, sap flow, electrode elevation, or ionic composition of soil was found, suggesting no direct connection to simple dissimilar-metal redox reactions or transpirational activity. Instead, a clear relationship between the voltage polarity and magnitude and the pH difference between xylem and soil was observed. We attribute these sustained voltages to a biological concentration cell likely set up by the homeostatic mechanisms of the tree. Potential applications of this finding are briefly explored.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/source-sustained-voltage-difference-between-xylem-potted-ficus-benjamina-tree-soil", "reader_count"=>53, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>12, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Chemistry"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>9, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>12}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "Taiwan"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Australia"=>2, "France"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/924481"], "description"=>"<p>A The effect of varying pH on the voltage between xylem (which is at constant pH∼6) and a standardized ionic solution connected to the pot soil via a 1 M KCl agar salt bridge is consistent with a mechanism governed by the Nernst equation. B To explore possible redox chemistry effects, the ionic composition of the solutions was varied (while keeping pH constant) but virtually no effect on the observed voltage between xylem and solution. K<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, of pH 12 gave a voltage consistent with a roughly 60 mV step per unit of pH difference, as predicted by the Nernst equation. C The experimental set up for A and B above (the experiments where performed separately).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ph", "ionic"], "article_id"=>594933, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Biophysics", "Plant Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Love", "Shuguang Zhang", "Andreas Mershin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002963.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varying_pH_and_Ionic_Composition_/594933", "title"=>"Varying pH and Ionic Composition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 09:47:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/924372"], "description"=>"<p>A A potted <i>Ficus benjamina</i> was placed on insulating foam inside a Faraday cage. Identical Platinum electrodes where inserted into the xylem (phloem removed) and a Petri dish containing a standardized water content soil solution of variable pH. The electrodes were connected to a high-impedance voltmeter. The standardized soil was connected to the pot soil via a 1 M KCl agar salt bridge (to complete the circuit via the soil-root interface). B Voltage vs Time post-electrode insertion shows no dependence on height, orientation or sap flow (it was stopped by inserting razor blades above and below the electrode) once transient voltages and currents are allowed to dissipate. The difference in pH between the xylem and the soil in this case is ∼2. C The “streaming potential” voltage generation mechanism depends on the Zeta potential (<i>ζ</i>) -voltage difference due to different flow properties at the center of a capillary and its walls and the <i>ΔP</i> (pressure difference between the two ends of the capillary and is given by which, for typical values for a tree, yields between 1 and 10 mV. <i>V<sub>sapstream</sub></i> is such that faster flow leads to higher voltages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["setup", "streaming"], "article_id"=>594822, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Biophysics", "Plant Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Love", "Shuguang Zhang", "Andreas Mershin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002963.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_Setup_and_the_Streaming_Potential_/594822", "title"=>"Experimental Setup and the Streaming Potential.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 09:47:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/924561"], "description"=>"<p>To further test our hypothesis that the voltages between xylem and soil are due to a biological concentration cell as governed by the Nernst equation, we plotted the voltage vs variable pH between a cut branch (no significant transpiration) and ionic solutions (A –grey squares) and soil solutions (D –pink triangles). To confirm the suitability of our salt bridges we also plotted the voltages between a standard pH 7 soil solution and variable pH soils (B –blue triangles) and a standard (pH 7) and variable ionic solutions (C –red squares). In all cases a roughly 60 mV per step of pH mismatch was evident and plots intersected the zero y-axis between pH 6 and 7 as expected. A plot of the Nernst equation with zero residual voltage <i>V′</i> and a reference of pH 7 is included (black solid line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["voltages", "nernst"], "article_id"=>595013, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Biophysics", "Plant Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Love", "Shuguang Zhang", "Andreas Mershin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002963.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparing_Voltages_to_the_Nernst_Equation_/595013", "title"=>"Comparing Voltages to the Nernst Equation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 09:48:22"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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