Functional Dorsoventral Symmetry in Relation to Lift-Based Swimming in the Ocean Sunfish Mola mola
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{"title"=>"Functional dorsoventral symmetry in relation to lift-based swimming in the ocean sunfish Mola mola", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yuuki", "last_name"=>"Watanabe", "scopus_author_id"=>"36012097100"}, {"first_name"=>"Katsufumi", "last_name"=>"Sato", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406407654"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"352631971", "sgr"=>"55649100928", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0003446", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-55649100928", "pmid"=>"18941510"}, "id"=>"91c6b611-1cc5-37e1-8a11-ebb8eece2fca", "abstract"=>"The largest (up to 2 tons) and a globally distributed teleost--the ocean sunfish Mola mola--is commonly regarded as a planktonic fish because of its unusual shape including absence of caudal fin. This common view was recently questioned because the horizontal movements of the ocean sunfish tracked by acoustic telemetry were independent of ocean currents. However, direct information regarding their locomotor performance under natural conditions is still lacking. By using multi-sensor tags, we show that sunfish indeed swam continuously with frequent vertical movements at speeds of 0.4-0.7 m s-1, which is similar to the records of other large fishes such as salmons, marlins, and pelagic sharks. The acceleration data revealed that they stroked their dorsal and anal fins synchronously (dominant frequency, 0.3-0.6 Hz) to generate a lift-based thrust, as penguins do using two symmetrical flippers. Morphological studies of sunfish (mass, 2-959 kg) showed that the dorsal and anal fins had similar external (symmetrical shape and identical area) and internal (identical locomotory muscle mass) features; however, the muscle shape differed markedly. We conclude that ocean sunfish have functional dorsoventral symmetry with regards to the non-homologous dorsal and anal fins that act as a pair of vertical hydrofoils. Although sunfish lack a swimbladder, we found that they are neutrally buoyant independent of depth because of their subcutaneous gelatinous tissue that has low density and is incompressible. Efficient lift-based swimming in conjunction with neutral buoyancy enables sunfish to travel long distances both horizontally and vertically.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/functional-dorsoventral-symmetry-relation-liftbased-swimming-ocean-sunfish-mola-mola", "reader_count"=>91, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>63, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>63}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/917963"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Typical examples. The vertical broken lines delineate the separation of the stroke cycle. (B) Power spectral density (PSD) calculated from the entire data set of this individual. Arrows indicate peaks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["longitudinal", "accelerations", "recorded", "sunfish", "48"], "article_id"=>588419, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Yuuki Watanabe", "Katsufumi Sato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003446.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lateral_red_line_and_longitudinal_blue_line_accelerations_recorded_from_an_ocean_sunfish_mass_48_kg_/588419", "title"=>"Lateral (red line) and longitudinal (blue line) accelerations recorded from an ocean sunfish (mass, 48 kg).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:47:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/917852"], "description"=>"<p>Open circles on the spectrogram represent dominant stroke cycle frequencies calculated for each five-minute time bin. Positive pitch represents head-up attitude of the fish, while negative pitch indicates head-down attitude. Positive roll represents right-rotated position of the fish, while negative roll indicates left-rotated position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectrogram", "lateral", "acceleration", "fin", "was", "sunfish", "48"], "article_id"=>588300, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Yuuki Watanabe", "Katsufumi Sato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003446.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Depth_swimming_speed_spectrogram_of_lateral_acceleration_indicative_of_fin_movements_where_magnitude_was_expressed_by_color_pitch_red_line_and_roll_blue_line_of_an_ocean_sunfish_mass_48_kg_/588300", "title"=>"Depth, swimming speed, spectrogram of lateral acceleration (indicative of fin movements) where magnitude was expressed by color, pitch (red line), and roll (blue line) of an ocean sunfish (mass, 48 kg).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:47:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/918045"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relationship between body mass and aspect ratio of dorsal fins (red circles) and anal fins (blue circles). The best-fit regression lines for dorsal (red line) and anal fin (blue line) are described as follows.</p><p></p>where AR is aspect ratio (dimensionless) and BM is body mass (kg). Examples of the shape of the fins (outlined from photos) from four mass groups are also shown. (B) Relationship between the projected area of dorsal and anal fins. The diagonal line represents identical area of both fins. (C) Photo of an individual (mass, 34 kg) showing how muscles that drive the dorsal fin (red line) and anal fin (blue line) are located. Yellow line indicates the vertebral column. (D) Relationship between the mass of dorsal-fin muscle and anal-fin muscle. The diagonal line represents identical mass of both muscles.<p></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locomotory", "fins", "muscles"], "article_id"=>588507, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Yuuki Watanabe", "Katsufumi Sato"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003446.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_locomotory_fins_and_muscles_of_ocean_sunfish_/588507", "title"=>"Morphology of locomotory fins and muscles of ocean sunfish.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:48:19"}

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